, Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, Volume 64, October 2021
The assembly of amyloidogenic peptides and proteins, such as the β-amyloid peptide, α-synuclein, huntingtin, tau, and islet amyloid polypeptide, into amyloid fibrils and oligomers is directly linked to amyloid diseases, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases, frontotemporal dementias, and type II diabetes. Although amyloid oligomers have emerged as especially important in amyloid diseases, high-resolution structures of the oligomers formed by full-length amyloidogenic peptides and proteins have remained elusive.
Environmental pollutants like fine particulate matter can cause adverse health effects through oxidative stress and inflammation. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) such as peroxynitrite can chemically modify proteins, but the effects of such modifications on the immune system and human health are not well understood. In the course of inflammatory processes, the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) can sense damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs).