Alzheimer's Disease

The enormous social and economic cost of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has driven a number of neuroimaging investigations for early detection and diagnosis. Towards this end, various computational approaches have been applied to longitudinal imaging data in subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), as serial brain imaging could increase sensitivity for detecting changes from baseline, and potentially serve as a diagnostic biomarker for AD. However, current state-of-the-art brain imaging diagnostic methods have limited utility in clinical practice due to the lack of robust predictive power.
It has recently been proposed that short-term memory (STM) binding deficits might be an important feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), providing a potential avenue for earlier detection of this disorder. By contrast, work in Parkinson's disease (PD), using different tasks, has suggested that the STM impairment in this condition is characterised by increased random guessing, possibly due to fluctuating attention.
Due to advances in the early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers including beta-amyloid (Aβ), neuropsychological measures that are sensitive to concurrent, subtle changes in cognition are critically needed. Story recall tasks have shown sensitivity to early memory declines in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage dementia, as well as in persons with autosomal dominantly inherited AD up to 10 years prior to a dementia diagnosis. However, the evidence is inconclusive regarding relationships between evidence of Aβ and story recall measures.
Objective: Many studies evaluated how the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) field strength affects the effectiveness to detect neurodegenerative changes of Alzheimer's disease (AD), derived from atrophy or thickness. To the best of our knowledge, no study evaluated before how tissue texture changes are affected. In this research, hippocampus texture features extracted from 1.5 T and 3 T MRI are evaluated how are affected by the magnetic field strength.
Background: Cholinergic neuronal loss is one of the hallmarks of AD related neurodegeneration; however, preclinical promise of α7 nAChR drugs failed to translate into humans. CHRFAM7A, a uniquely human fusion gene, is a negative regulator of α7 nAChR and was unaccounted for in preclinical models. Methods: Molecular methods: Function of CHRFAM7A alleles was studied in vitro in two disease relevant phenotypic readouts: electrophysiology and Aβ uptake. Genome edited human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) were used as a model system with the human context.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is primarily involved in the regulation of learning and memory. Pathological changes in metabolism or functional imbalance of 5-HT has been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The hypothesis tested is that in peripheral blood, markers of the serotonergic pathway can be used as a diagnostic tool for AD.
Objectives: The mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) may involve oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is a circulating protein that intersects both these pathways, since its expression is increased during the acute phase response, and the protein acts to lower pro-oxidant iron in cells. Since the role of Cp in AD, and its potential for use as a biomarker is not established, we investigated CSF Cp and its association with longitudinal outcome measures related to AD.
Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia and is a serious health problem. The disease is expected to increase further in the upcoming years with the increase of the elderly population. Developing new treatments and diagnostic methods is getting more important. In this study, we focused on the early diagnosis of dementia in Alzheimer's disease via analysis of neuroimages. We analyzed the data diagnosed by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) protocol.
We examined whether cognitive reserve (CR) impacts level of, or rate of change in, biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and small-vessel cerebrovascular disease in >250 individuals who were cognitively normal and middle-aged and older at the baseline. The four primary biomarker categories commonly examined in studies of AD were measured longitudinally: cerebrospinal fluid measures of amyloid (A) and tau (T); cerebrospinal fluid and neuroimaging measures of neuronal injury (N); and neuroimaging measures of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) to assess cerebrovascular pathology (V).
Background: The nuclear factor erythroid2-related factor2 (Nrf2), a chief transcriptional regulator of antioxidant response element (ARE), is considered a promising target for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Vitamin D has been recognized to have a crucial role in improving AD cognitive functions. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of active vitamin D analogue, Maxacalcitol, on Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway in experimental Alzheimer's disease in rats.