Animals

Background & aims: Recent experimental models and epidemiological studies suggest that specific environmental contaminants (ECs) contribute to the initiation and pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the underlying mechanisms linking EC exposure with NAFLD remain poorly understood and there is no data on their impact on the human liver metabolome. Herein, we hypothesized that exposure to ECs, particularly perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS), impacts liver metabolism, specifically bile acid metabolism.
Plant-based meat analogs are likely to have different gastrointestinal fates than real meat products due to differences in their compositions and structures. Here, we compared the gastrointestinal fate of ground beef and ground beef analogs using the INFOGEST in vitro digestion model, focusing on differences in microstructure, physicochemical properties, lipid digestion, and protein digestion in different regions of the model gut.
Graphical abstract of article
Oxidation of engineered nanomaterials during application in various industrial sectors can alter their toxicity. Oxidized nanomaterials also have widespread industrial and biomedical applications. In this study, we evaluated the cardiopulmonary hazard posed by these nanomaterials using oxidized carbon black (CB) nanoparticles (CBox) as a model particle. Particle surface chemistry was characterized by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).
Despite the better understanding of the mechanisms underlying Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and launched clinical trials, no AD-modifying treatment based on a synthetic drug has been introduced for almost twenty years. The serotonin 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors turned out to be promising biological targets for modulation of central nervous system dysfunctions including cognitive impairment. Within this paper, we evaluate the pharmacological potency of both, 5-HT6R and 5-HT7R, agents in search for novel AD treatment.
Elsevier, Behavioural Brain Research, Volume 414, 24 September 2021
Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK), a serine/threonine kinase regulated by the small GTPase RhoA, is involved in regulating cell migration, proliferation, and survival. Numerous studies have shown that the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway can promote Alzheimer's disease (AD) occurrence. ROCK activation increases β-secretase activity and promotes amyloid-beta (Aβ) production; moreover, Aβ further activates ROCK. This is suggestive of a possible positive feedback role for Aβ and ROCK. Moreover, ROCK activation promotes the formation of neurofibrillary tangles and abnormal synaptic contraction.
Sporadic late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent cause of dementia associated with aging. Due to the progressive aging of the population, AD is becoming a healthcare burden of unprecedented proportions. Twenty years ago, it was reported that some indole molecules produced by the gut microbiota possess essential biological activities, including neuroprotection and antioxidant properties. Since then, research has cemented additional characteristics of these substances, including anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, and amyloid anti-aggregation features.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is by far the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease of aging and is a major burden for patients, caregivers, and the overall health care system. The complexity of AD pathophysiology and the lack of deep understanding of disease mechanisms impeded the development of AD therapy. Currently approved treatments for AD only modestly improve cognitive function but do not modify disease course. The lack of pharmacological approaches has led to the consideration of alternative strategies to prevent or to slow down the progression of AD.
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder of the brain, clinically characterised by cognitive deficits that gradually worsen over time. There is, at present, no established cure, or disease-modifying treatments for AD. As life expectancy increases globally, the number of individuals suffering from the disease is projected to increase substantially. Cumulative evidence indicates that AD neuropathological process is initiated several years, if not decades, before clinical signs are evident in patients, and diagnosis made.
The clown anemonefish (Amphiprion ocellaris) is a common model species in studies assessing the impact of climate changes on tropical coral fish physiology, metabolism, growth, and stress. However, the basic endocrine principles for the control of food intake and energy homeostasis, under normal and elevated sea temperatures, in this species remain unknown. In this work, we studied food intake and growth in clown anemonefish reared at different temperatures and with different food availability.
Anthropogenic activity is a major driver of seabird injury and mortality in the 21st century. Although most seabirds perish within the natural environment as a result of human activities, some are rescued and admitted to rehabilitation centres. Despite the considerable number of admissions, little is known regarding the physiological response seabirds have to specific admission reasons and the rehabilitation process.

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