Patients with liver diseases, especially those with cirrhosis, have an increased mortality risk when infected by SARS-CoV-2 and therefore anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine has been recommended by leading Scientific Associations for all patients with chronic liver diseases. However, previous reports have shown a reduced antibody response following the full course of vaccination in immunosuppressed patients, including liver transplant recipients and several rheumatic diseases.
Background: The effect of long-term exposure to air pollution on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still controversial, and the role of the interactions of air pollution with genetic risk and lifestyle in COPD risk is unclear. Methods: We included 452762 participants derived from the UK Biobank. Annual concentrations of air pollutions, including particle matter (PM2.5, PM10), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), were assessed using land-use regression model.
Background: Human impacts on earth-system processes are overshooting several planetary boundaries, driving a crisis of ecological breakdown. This crisis is being caused in large part by global resource extraction, which has increased dramatically over the past half century. We propose a novel method for quantifying national responsibility for ecological breakdown by assessing nations’ cumulative material use in excess of equitable and sustainable boundaries. Methods: For this analysis, we derived national fair shares of a sustainable resource corridor.
Spatial resolution of the geographical information system-based model
Background: Increasing air conditioner use for cooling indoor spaces has the potential to be a primary driver of global greenhouse gas emissions. Moving indoor air with residential fans can raise the temperature threshold at which air conditioning needs to be turned on to maintain the thermal comfort of building occupants. We investigate whether fans can be used to reduce air conditioner use and associated greenhouse gas emissions.
Background: The use of pesticides in agriculture has been associated with the destruction of biodiversity and damage to human health. A marked reduction in pesticide use is urgently required globally, but whether this can be achieved rapidly and at scale is unclear. We aimed to assess whether government-legislated and funded organic farming training in Andhra Pradesh, India, reduced pesticide use by farmers and sales of pesticides by pesticide retailers.
Background: In autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), clinical practice and treatment guidelines frequently diverge as a reflection of disease heterogeneity and challenges in achieving standardised care. We sought to explore the utility of multiparametric (mp) MR in patients with AIH, and the impact of this technology on physicians’ decision making and intended patient management. Methods: 82 AIH patients, recruited from two sites between June and November 2019 as part of an observational cohort study, underwent non-contrast MRI alongside their standard clinical investigations.
Background & Aims: HBV infects over 257 million people worldwide and is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Integration of HBV DNA into the host genome is likely a key driver of HCC oncogenesis. Here, we utilise targeted long-read sequencing to determine the structure of HBV DNA integrations as well as full isoform information of HBV mRNA with more accurate quantification than traditional next generation sequencing platforms. Methods: DNA and RNA were isolated from fresh frozen liver biopsies collected within the GS-US-174-0149 clinical trial.
Rationale and Objectives: Our objectives were (1) to determine the extent to which gender discrimination and sexual harassment are experienced by female radiologists and trainees; (2) to examine whether experiencing harassment or discrimination influences perceptions of gender parity; and (3) to explore whether the existence of either formal institutional policies or the number of women in the workplace and/or in leadership positions influences perceptions of having achieved gender equity.
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Background & Aims: Accumulating animal studies have demonstrated the harmful contribution of ambient air pollution (AP) to metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), but corresponding epidemiological evidence is limited. We examined the associations between long-term AP exposure and MAFLD prevalence in a Chinese population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 90,086 participants recruited in China from 2018 to 2019.
Background: Numerous studies have quantified the associations between ambient temperature and enteric infections, particularly all-cause enteric infections. However, the temperature sensitivity of enteric infections might be pathogen dependent. Here, we sought to identify pathogen-specific associations between ambient temperature and enteric infections.