, Marine Policy, Volume 96, October 2018
This study reports plastic debris pollution in the deep-sea based on the information from a recently developed database. The Global Oceanographic Data Center (GODAC) of the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) launched the Deep-sea Debris Database for public use in March 2017. The database archives photographs and videos of debris that have been collected since 1983 by deep-sea submersibles and remotely operated vehicles. From the 5010 dives in the database, 3425 man-made debris items were counted.
, Current Opinion in Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Volume 13, October 2018
This short review gives an overview of recent publications on public views on climate change, student views and misconceptions, and resources for making connections in the classroom and the laboratory between chemistry concepts and climate change concepts.
, Neuron, Volume 100, 24 October 2018
Recent progress in the genomics of non-syndromic autism spectrum disorder (nsASD) highlights rare, large-effect, germline, heterozygous de novo coding mutations. This distinguishes nsASD from later-onset psychiatric disorders where gene discovery efforts have predominantly yielded common alleles of small effect. These differences point to distinctive opportunities for clarifying the neurobiology of nsASD and developing novel treatments.
, Advances in Radiation Oncology, Volume 3, October - December 2018
There is currently much interest in identifying and mitigating gender inequity within medicine, the greater workforce and society as a whole. We provide an evidence-based review of current and historical trends in gender diversity in the RO physician workforce and identify potential barriers to diversity and inclusion in training, professional development, and career advancement.
, Journal of Cleaner Production, Volume 195, 10 September 2018
The use of biomass for energy production is one way to ensure energy security and address the environmental issues related to the use of fossil fuels in developing countries. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) need electric power and thermal energy for their activities. In Burkina Faso, this type of thermal energy is generally produced by SMEs from firewood. However, cashew companies produce a large amount of waste (shell, press cake, nut shell liquid) which can be converted into fuel. Separating the cashew nut from the shell requires two energy-intensive steps: roasting and drying.
, Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health, Volume 6, September 2018
Objective: Foreign-origin street children are vulnerable to HIV/AIDS mainly due to poverty, violence, early sexual activity and poor access to health care services. This study aimed to highlight the effectiveness of peer education intervention to reduce HIV-risky behavior among street children with Afghan nationality. Methods: Sixty-one street children were stratified by sex and then randomly allocated to either an intervention or control group by assigning each participant computerized random numbers.
, Marine Policy, Volume 95, September 2018
Small-scale fisheries (SSFs) constitute a critical socioeconomic sector by providing a source of income and animal protein for fishing communities worldwide. In Uruguay this sector has traditionally been neglected. More recently, the Uruguayan government has shown an increasing interest in readdressing this situation by setting a high-level policy for SSFs. This paper addresses the long-term process from conceptualization to operationalization of the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF) in Uruguayan SSFs.
, Thermal Science and Engineering Progress, Volume 7, September 2018
Rural communities in developing countries often require small cold storage for vital medicines while having no access to electricity. The utilization of waste heat – produced in biomass burning cookstoves during daily cooking routines – to power a thermoacoustic engine driving a thermoacoustic refrigerator is investigated. The simplicity and affordability is met by the use of atmospheric air as working medium, cheap PVC ducting for acoustic waveguides and locally available blacksmithing technologies for simple heat exchangers.
, Chem, Volume 4, 13 September 2018
Bruce H. Lipshutz is currently a professor of chemistry at the University of California, Santa Barbara. His research program has, for decades, focused mainly on the development of new reagents and methodologies that are especially general and useful for the synthetic community. Of late, his group pays special attention to synthetic chemistry that is environmentally responsible.
, Chem, Volume 4, 13 September 2018
The authors work at the Green Chemistry Centre of Excellence (GCCE) at the University of York and are all currently involved in the H2020-BBI-funded project ReSolve for the development of safer bio-based solvents. Solvent applications for dihydrolevoglucosenone (Cyrene) and 2,2,5,5-tetramethyloxloane (TMO) are among their prominent discoveries. Dr. James Sherwood leads the Alternative Solvents Technology Platform at the GCCE. His research interests include solvent effects in organic synthesis and the substitution of hazardous solvents with novel bio-based solvents. Dr.