Data regarding racial and ethnic enrollment diversity for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) clinical trials in the United States are limited, and little is known about the effect of federal reporting requirements instituted in the late 2000s. We examined demographic data reporting and enrollment diversity for ALL and AML trials in the United States from 2002 to 2017, as well as changes in reporting and diversity after reporting requirements were instituted.
Background: Criteria for low-dose CT scan lung cancer screening vary across guidelines. Knowledge of the eligible pool across demographic groups can enable policy and programmatic decision-making, particularly for disproportionately affected populations. Research Question: What are the eligibility rates for low-dose CT scan screening according to sex and race or ethnicity and how do these rates relate to corresponding lung cancer incidence rates?
This Article supprts SDGs 3 and 10 by assessing the performance of four severity scoring systems used for case-mix determination and benchmarking in intensive care units to identify possible ethnicity-based bias. The study found systemic differences in calibration across ethnicities.
Background: The objective of the current study is to investigate whether an area-level measure of racial sentiment derived from Twitter data is associated with state-level hate crimes and existing measures of racial prejudice at the individual-level. Methods: We collected 30,977,757 tweets from June 2015–July 2018 containing at least one keyword pertaining to specific groups (Asians, Arabs, Blacks, Latinos, Whites). We characterized sentiment of each tweet (negative vs all other) and averaged at the state-level.
Background: The incidence of metastatic spine disease (MSD) is increasing among cancer patients. Given the poor outcomes and high rates of morbidity associated with MSD, it is important to determine demographic factors that could impact interventions and outcomes for this patient population. The objectives of this study were to compare in-hospital mortality and complication rates, clinical presentation, and interventions between female and male patients diagnosed with MSD.
Background: Patients from ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected by Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the relationship between ethnicity and clinical outcomes in COVID-19. Methods: Databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PROSPERO, Cochrane library and MedRxiv) were searched up to 31st August 2020, for studies reporting COVID-19 data disaggregated by ethnicity. Outcomes were: risk of infection; intensive therapy unit (ITU) admission and death. PROSPERO ID: 180654.
Metastatic colorectal cancer outcomes continue to improve, but they vary significantly by race and ethnicity. Hypothesizing that these disparities arise from unequal access to care rather than intrinsic biology, we showed that survival of 103 consecutive patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated at an academic safety-net hospital that treats the underserved, predominantly minority population of Harris County, Texas, was superior to that of subjects enrolled in the CRYSTAL (Cetuximab Combined with Irinotecan in First-Line Therapy for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer) trial.
Study objective: We examine racial and ethnic differences in opioid prescribing and dosing for long bone fractures at emergency department (ED) discharge. Methods: We conducted an electronic health records–based cross-sectional study of adults with long bone fractures who presented to the ED across 22 sites from a health care delivery system (2016 to 2017).