Bio-energy

The concern regarding alternate sources of energy is mounting day-by-day due to the effect of pollution that is damaging the environment. Algae are a diverse group of aquatic organisms have an efficiency and ability in mitigating carbon dioxide emissions and produce oil with a high productivity which has a lot of potential applications in producing biofuel, otherwise known as the third-generation biofuel.
The use of biomass for energy production is one way to ensure energy security and address the environmental issues related to the use of fossil fuels in developing countries. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) need electric power and thermal energy for their activities. In Burkina Faso, this type of thermal energy is generally produced by SMEs from firewood. However, cashew companies produce a large amount of waste (shell, press cake, nut shell liquid) which can be converted into fuel. Separating the cashew nut from the shell requires two energy-intensive steps: roasting and drying.
Uncertainties in evaluating bioenergy projects have lead policymakers to adopt a restrictive approach or even refuse to evaluate projects when the available information is limited or a clear perception of its benefits and impact is lacking. Indeed, despite its potential advantages, a bioenergy system poses several conceptual and operational challenges for academic as well as practical scrutiny because the inherent relationship and the intersection of areas related to energy production and agricultural activity requires a deeply integrated assessment.
This paper addresses the interface of steering, research, and business operators' perspectives to bioenergy sustainability. Although bioenergy business operators are essential for sustainable development of bioenergy systems through implementation of sustainability criteria, their perspective to sustainability is rarely studied.
This article describes the key challenges and opportunities in modeling and optimization of biomass-to-bioenergy supply chains. It reviews the major energy pathways from terrestrial and aquatic biomass to bioenergy/biofuel products as well as power and heat with an emphasis on "drop-in" liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Key components of the bioenergy supply chains are then presented, along with a comprehensive overview and classification of the existing contributions on biofuel/bioenergy supply chain optimization.
Based on literature and six country studies (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Netherlands, Sweden, Slovakia) this paper discusses the compatibility of the EU 2020 targets for renewable energy with conservation of biodiversity.We conclude that increased demand for biomass for bioenergy purposes may lead to a continued conversion of valuable habitats into productive lands and to intensification, which both have negative effects on biodiversity.
Wood residues from forest harvesting or disturbance wood from wildfire and insect outbreaks may be viewed as biomass "feedstocks" for bioenergy production, to help reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. Biomass removals of woody debris may have potential impacts on forest biodiversity and ecosystem function. Forest-floor small mammals, such as the southern red-backed vole (Myodes gapperi) that typically disappear after clearcut harvesting, may serve as ecological indicators of significant change in forest structure and function.