Biomass

Globally, 2.6 billion people still cook with biomass, resulting in interlinked health, environmental and drudgery challenges. The uptake of improved biomass cookstoves has barely kept up with population growth, yet SDG7 hopes for universal access to modern energy by 2030. This paper explores a potentially transformative new approach to facilitate access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for cooking by leveraging rapid progress in electrification and falling prices of solar PV and lithium-ion batteries: battery-supported electric cooking.
The National Biogas Policy of Ethiopia introduces plans for the implementation of biogas technologies in rural areas. However, rural households' decision to adopt biogas energy technology has been influenced by different socio-economic and institutional factors. This research was therefore undertaken to determine the actual energy consumption status and factors impacting the adoption of biogas technology by rural households in northwestern Ethiopia. Primary data from 182 randomly chosen households and 15 key informants were obtained.
Elsevier,

The Lancet Global Health, Volume 9, March 2021

This Viewpoint supports SDGs 3, 6, and 7 by discussing some of the reasons why many of the innovations and technologies for WASH (water, sanitation, and hygiene) and household air pollution developed in recent decades have not led to the expected improvements in health outcomes, and why many of these interventions have either been inconsistently adopted by low-income households, or not adopted at all.
Elsevier, Case Studies in Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Volume 2, September 2020
After water, concrete is the second most used material in the world. Using life cycle assessments, concrete has typically been found to be 80% of a residential building by weight. Cement production consumes large amounts of energy, motivating a search for sustainable alternatives. Rice husk ash produced in controlled combustion has been found to be a viable replacement for cement. Renewable and sustainable, rice husks have the potential to produce energy while yielding an ash product for use in concrete.
Climate change and population growth generates a decrease in water availability around the world which can compromise the maintenance of sustainable agriculture. Thus, treated wastewater (TWW) became an alternative to minimize water shortage. However, this may indirectly affect the soil's microbial properties. In this study different soils irrigated for 0, 1, 8 and 20 years with TWW were sampled and from the east central region of Tunisia.
There is a wide array of biomass utilisation pathways to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. The characteristic of biomass, the demand for products, and the local constraints determine the sustainability of utilisation. Generic principles and criteria can be applied to the analysis of specific instances. This work develops a decision-making tool for determining the most sustainable use of biomass for carbon management. The mathematical principles are based on break-even analysis and are visualised in the form of a graphical display for transparent communication of results to decision-makers.
The potential of electron-donating capability in methoxy groups of antioxidant containing protein (ACAP) as organic catalyst is restricted by its low isoelectric point. The goal of this study is to construct endure ACAP based metal-free organic catalyst for hydrogen production from electrolysis of noodle wastewater. The ACAP was coated thermomechanically on PVC sheet and its performance was tested during electrolysis of noodle wastewater. The morphological analysis, phase analysis, and elemental analysis of coated materials have shown a simultaneous pattern with electrolysis performances.
The pyrolysis-catalytic steam reforming of six agricultural biomass waste samples as well as the three main components of biomass was investigated in a two stage fixed bed reactor. Pyrolysis of the biomass took place in the first stage followed by catalytic steam reforming of the evolved pyrolysis gases in the second stage catalytic reactor. The waste biomass samples were, rice husk, coconut shell, sugarcane bagasse, palm kernel shell, cotton stalk and wheat straw and the biomass components were, cellulose, hemicellulose (xylan) and lignin.
Approximately 70% of the aquatic-based production of animals is fed aquaculture, whereby animals are provided with high-protein aquafeeds. Currently, aquafeeds are reliant on fish meal and fish oil sourced from wild-captured forage fish. However, increasing use of forage fish is unsustainable and, because an additional 37.4 million tons of aquafeeds will be required by 2025, alternative protein sources are needed.
Agricultural wastes are readily available in farming communities and can be utilised for off-grid electrification as an alternative to diesel generators. This work evaluates for the first time the life cycle environmental sustainability of these small-scale systems in the context of Southeast Asia. Rice and coconut residues are considered for direct combustion and gasification, and livestock manure for anaerobic digestion. Overall, anaerobic digestion is the best option for 14 out of 18 impacts estimated through life cycle assessment.

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