Cadmium

Graphical abstract of article
Environmental risk factors, including physicochemical agents, noise and mental stress, have a considerable impact on human health. This environmental exposure may lead to epigenetic reprogramming, including changes in non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) signatures, which can contribute to the pathophysiology state. Oxidative stress is one of the results of this environmental disturbance by modifying cellular processes such as apoptosis, signal transduction cascades, and DNA repair mechanisms.
Elsevier, Current Opinion in Endocrine and Metabolic Research, Volume 13, August 2020
Decades of population-based health outcomes data highlight the importance of understanding how environmental exposures in pregnancy affect maternal and neonatal outcomes. Animal model research and epidemiological studies have revealed that such exposures are able to alter fetal programming through stable changes in the epigenome, including altered DNA methylation patterns and histone modifications in the developing fetus and infant.