Background: Approximately 2·8 billion people are exposed to household air pollution from cooking with polluting fuels. Few monitoring studies have systematically measured health-damaging air pollutant (ie, fine particulate matter [PM2·5] and black carbon) concentrations from a wide range of cooking fuels across diverse populations. This multinational study aimed to assess the magnitude of kitchen concentrations and personal exposures to PM2·5 and black carbon in rural communities with a wide range of cooking environments.
Soil contamination by potentially toxic elements (PTEs) has led to adverse environmental impacts. In this review, we discussed remediation of PTEs contaminated soils through immobilization techniques using different soil amendments with respect to type of element, soil, and amendment, immobilization efficiency, underlying mechanisms, and field applicability. Soil amendments such as manure, compost, biochar, clay minerals, phosphate compounds, coal fly ash, and liming materials are widely used as immobilizing agents for PTEs.
The use of biomass for energy production is one way to ensure energy security and address the environmental issues related to the use of fossil fuels in developing countries. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) need electric power and thermal energy for their activities. In Burkina Faso, this type of thermal energy is generally produced by SMEs from firewood. However, cashew companies produce a large amount of waste (shell, press cake, nut shell liquid) which can be converted into fuel. Separating the cashew nut from the shell requires two energy-intensive steps: roasting and drying.