Children

Cyberbullying is associated with increased risk of suicidal and self-harm behaviors in children and adolescents. However, no review to date has explored factors that exacerbate and mitigate this relationship. This systematic review concerns research on factors that influence the impact of cyberbullying on suicidal and self-harm behaviors. Four bibliographic databases were explored and references in included articles were searched. We identified 727 articles and retained 66 that met inclusion criteria.
Cartoon showing how humanitarian response affects population characteristics and trafficking risk.
Thailand's flood of 2011 was devastating for the communities and inhabitants of the country, affecting approximately 13 million people and causing damages totaling THB 1.43 trillion (46.5 billion USD). The presence of a natural hazards disaster such as this can magnify individuals' vulnerability to human trafficking, or mitigate it depending on the disaster risk reduction practices of the surrounding community.
Elsevier, Pediatric Clinics of North America, Volume 68, February 2021
The burden imposed by pollution falls more on those living in low-income and middle-income countries, affecting children more than adults. Most air pollution results from incomplete combustion and contains a mixture of particulate matter and gases. Air pollution exposure has negative impacts on respiratory health. This article concentrates on air pollution in 2 settings, the child's home and the ambient environment. There is an inextricable 2-way link between air pollution and climate change, and the effects of climate change on childhood respiratory health also are discussed.
Elsevier, Advances in Child Development and Behavior, Volume 60, January 2021
Research conducted over the last century has suggested a role for sleep in the processes guiding healthy cognition and development, including memory consolidation. Children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) tend to have higher rates of sleep disturbances, which could relate to behavior issues, developmental delays, and learning difficulties.
Elsevier, Global Food Security, Volume 27, December 2020
Transforming food systems is essential to ensuring nutritious, safe, affordable, and sustainable diets for all, including children and adolescents. This paper proposes a new conceptual framework (the ‘Innocenti Framework’) to better articulate how the diets of children and adolescents are shaped by food systems.
Current food systems are failing to guide children towards healthy diets. This paper presents a tool to identify the actions needed to reorient food systems to become more child-centred from a nutrition perspective. To connect the dots between children's lives, their food environments and food supply systems, the tool takes a child-centred, food systems approach.
Intervening in the food environment is critical to improve the diets and nutrition of children and adolescents. Little is known about the most effective interventions targeting children and adolescents, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We conducted a scoping review of the literature to examine influence of external and personal food environment interventions on the diets and nutrition of children and adolescents. Most of the included studies examined interventions in school settings in the United States, with few studies from LMICs.
This paper focuses on the most proximate determinants of dietary intake: food behaviors of caregivers, children and adolescents. Utilizing a case study approach, we explored cultural-ecological factors that have been shown to affect behavioral interventions aimed improving diet quality. The results provide insights about facilitators and barriers to uptake of interventions aimed at improving dietary behaviors in children and adolescents and highlight their implications for planning and monitoring future interventions.
Unhealthy food marketing has long been identified as a systems factor with negative health effects on children. The data-driven, personal data extraction and behavioural design practices of 21st century media advertising in digital technology systems mean that food marketing now sits at the intersection of multiple harms, infringing not only children's rights to health and to food, but also their rights to privacy and to be free from exploitation. This further sharpens the need for State regulation to protect children and their rights effectively.

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