Chronic Disease

Perceived causes for chronic respiratory symptoms
Background: Effectiveness of health programmes can be undermined when the implementation misaligns with local beliefs and behaviours. To design context-driven implementation strategies, we explored beliefs and behaviours regarding chronic respiratory disease (CRD) in diverse low-resource settings. Methods: This observational mixed-method study was conducted in Africa (Uganda), Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Vietnam) and Europe (rural Greece and a Roma camp). We systematically mapped beliefs and behaviours using the SETTING-tool.
Background: COVID-19 spread rapidly in Brazil despite the country's well established health and social protection systems. Understanding the relationships between health-system preparedness, responses to COVID-19, and the pattern of spread of the epidemic is particularly important in a country marked by wide inequalities in socioeconomic characteristics (eg, housing and employment status) and other health risks (age structure and burden of chronic disease).
Elsevier, Preventive Medicine Reports, Volume 21, March 2021
The current COVID-19 pandemic represents an acute threat to the health of adults and children across the globe. In addition, it has the potential to worsen the health of future generations through intergenerational health effects. Examples from history, including the Dutch famine (Hongerwinter), suggest that in utero and early life environments may have significant implications for health outcomes throughout the lifespan and are important in determining risk of chronic disease in adulthood.
Social determinants of health, including poverty, contribute significantly to health outcomes in the United States; however, their impact on pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes is poorly understood. We aimed to identify the association between neighborhood poverty and HCT outcomes for pediatric allogeneic HCT recipients in the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database.
Background: There are growing numbers of adults aging with long-term mobility disabilities. Very little is known about the challenges this population experiences with everyday activities, and such challenges are likely to be greater and more complex than those of older adults who experience mobility declines later in life. Objectives: The current manuscript presents in-depth insights on the specific activity challenges experienced by older adults with long-term mobility disabilities, and the response strategies they employ to overcome those challenges.
This paper is written for non-specialists in mitochondrial biology to provide access to an important area of science that has broad implications for all people. The cell danger response (CDR) is a universal response to environmental threat or injury. Once triggered, healing cannot be completed until the choreographed stages of the CDR are returned to an updated state of readiness. Although the CDR is a cellular response, it has the power to change human thought and behavior, child development, physical fitness and resilience, fertility, and the susceptibility of entire populations to disease.
Study objective: We estimate emergency department (ED) use differences across Medicare enrollees of different race/ethnicity who are residing in the same zip codes. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we stratified all Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 66 years and older (2006 to 2012) by residence zip code and identified zip codes with racial/ethnic diversity, defined as containing at least 1 enrollee from each of 3 racial/ethnic groups: Hispanics, (non-Hispanic) blacks, and (non-Hispanic) whites.
Elsevier, Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, Volume 60, June 2017
Running is a popular and convenient leisure-time physical activity (PA) with a significant impact on longevity. In general, runners have a 25%–40% reduced risk of premature mortality and live approximately 3 years longer than non-runners. Recently, specific questions have emerged regarding the extent of the health benefits of running versus other types of PA, and perhaps more critically, whether there are diminishing returns on health and mortality outcomes with higher amounts of running.
Background Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015.
Elsevier, Health and Place, Volume 31, January 01, 2015
Many cross-sectional studies of neighbourhood effects on health do not employ strong study design elements. The Neighbourhood Effects on Health and Well-being (NEHW) study, a random sample of 2412 English-speaking Toronto residents (age 25-64), utilises strong design features for sampling neighbourhoods and individuals, characterising neighbourhoods using a variety of data sources, measuring a wide range of health outcomes, and for analysing cross-level interactions.