Clinical Outcome

Objectives: The mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) may involve oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is a circulating protein that intersects both these pathways, since its expression is increased during the acute phase response, and the protein acts to lower pro-oxidant iron in cells. Since the role of Cp in AD, and its potential for use as a biomarker is not established, we investigated CSF Cp and its association with longitudinal outcome measures related to AD.
This study supports SDG 3 and 10 by highlighting the increased prevalence of diabetes and gestational diabetes in Indigenous women compared with non-Indigenous women, across Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the USA. These findings highlight the need for system-wide and structural interventions to reduce the risk of diabetes and gestational diabetes in Indigenous women before, during, and after pregnancy.
Introduction: Clitoral reconstruction (CR) is a controversial surgical procedure performed for women who have undergone medically unnecessary, often ritualistic genital cutting involving the clitoris. Such cutting is known by several terms; we will use female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C). Treatments offered to women affected by complications of FGM/C include defibulation (releasing the scar of infibulation to allow penetrative intercourse, urinary flow, physiological delivery, and menstruation) and CR to decrease pain, improve sexual response, and create a pre-FGM/C genital appearance.
Aims: To determine the pooled effectiveness of multidiscipinary care teams (MCTs) in reducing major amputation rates in adults with diabetes. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed, searching databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and thru October 2018. We included only before-after studies comparing amputation rates before and after the implementation of a MCT for the prevention of major amputation in adults with diabetes. Our primary outcome was relative risk of major amputation.
This study supports SDGs 3 and 6 by identifying passive chlorination at the point of collection as an effective and scalable strategy for reducing diarrhoea in children and improving access to safe and affordable drinking water in a low-income urban setting.
This study supports SDGs 3 and 6 by showing that elementary WASH interventions alone were insufficient in reducing the prevalence of stunting, anaemia, and diarrhoea in children in rural Zimbabwe; these findings call for greater investment into, and scale-up of, WASH programmes in rural settings, in order to achieve more meaningful improvements in child health outcomes.
Background Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015.