Elsevier, Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, Volume 60, January 2021
Sex and gender differences in cognitive and brain reserve: Implications for Alzheimer's disease in women
Women represent ⅔ of the cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Current research has focused on differential risks to explain higher rates of AD in women. However, factors that reduce risk for AD, like cognitive/brain reserve, are less well explored. We asked: what is known about sex and gender differences in how reserve mitigates risk for AD?
Elsevier, Neurobiology of Aging, Volume 88, April 2020
Cognitive reserve and rate of change in Alzheimer's and cerebrovascular disease biomarkers among cognitively normal individuals
We examined whether cognitive reserve (CR) impacts level of, or rate of change in, biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and small-vessel cerebrovascular disease in >250 individuals who were cognitively normal and middle-aged and older at the baseline. The four primary biomarker categories commonly examined in studies of AD were measured longitudinally: cerebrospinal fluid measures of amyloid (A) and tau (T); cerebrospinal fluid and neuroimaging measures of neuronal injury (N); and neuroimaging measures of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) to assess cerebrovascular pathology (V).