Containers

Elsevier, Measurement: Journal of the International Measurement Confederation, Volume 143, September 2019
With the advantages of reducing CO2 emissions and improving the sustainability of supply chain, returnable containers have been widely used in logistics processes. This paper considers a returnable containers supply chain that consists of a single vendor and multiple buyers. To minimize the total cost of the system and balance the containers flow, we assume that the buyers can invest in employee training to reduce the loss fraction of returnable containers.