Alternative methods for improving traditional food processing have increased in the last decades. Additionally, the development of novel dairy products is gaining importance due to an increased consumer demand for palatable, healthy, and minimally processed products. Ultrasonic processing or sonication is a promising alternative technology in the food industry as it has potential to improve the technological and functional properties of milk and dairy products.
This article presents a cradle-to-grave analysis of the United States fluid milk supply chain greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are accounted from fertilizer production through consumption and disposal of milk packaging. Crop production and on-farm GHG emissions were evaluated using public data and 536 farm operation surveys. Milk processing data were collected from 50 dairy plants nationwide. Retail and consumer GHG emissions were estimated from primary data, design estimates, and publicly available data.