Developing Countries

Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is a recent concept that is gaining momentum in both the scientific world and the private sector. First studies and field trials – essentially conducted in developed countries – suggest that MaaS can influence people's mobility behavior and create more efficient and sustainable transport systems for the future. We intend to contribute to the existing knowledge about MaaS by extending the scope to the context of developing countries where MaaS could be a potential strategy to address existing transport problems.
Perceived causes for chronic respiratory symptoms
Background: Effectiveness of health programmes can be undermined when the implementation misaligns with local beliefs and behaviours. To design context-driven implementation strategies, we explored beliefs and behaviours regarding chronic respiratory disease (CRD) in diverse low-resource settings. Methods: This observational mixed-method study was conducted in Africa (Uganda), Asia (Kyrgyzstan and Vietnam) and Europe (rural Greece and a Roma camp). We systematically mapped beliefs and behaviours using the SETTING-tool.
Bangladesh is one of the world's strongest emerging economies. This nation is working on improving women's empowerment, with more women entering meaningful employment, and socio-cultural constraints on women's mobility gradually decreasing over time. However, for women in Bangladesh, travel constraints are currently more significant than cultural constraints. Therefore, to sustain the nation's economic growth, challenges to women's mobility must be resolved by developing a gender-inclusive transport system. To achieve this, proper transport planning is necessary.
Background: The prevalence of landscape fires has increased, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). We aimed to assess the impact of exposure to landscape fire smoke (LFS) on the health of children. Methods: We conducted a sibling-matched case-control study and selected 552 155 children (aged
Background: Understanding subnational variation in age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs) and total fertility rates (TFRs), and geographical clustering of high fertility and its determinants in low-income and middle-income countries, is increasingly needed for geographical targeting and prioritising of policy. We aimed to identify variation in fertility rates, to describe patterns of key selected fertility determinants in areas of high fertility.

The Lancet Global Health, Volume 9, March 2021

This Viewpoint supports SDGs 3, 6, and 7 by discussing some of the reasons why many of the innovations and technologies for WASH (water, sanitation, and hygiene) and household air pollution developed in recent decades have not led to the expected improvements in health outcomes, and why many of these interventions have either been inconsistently adopted by low-income households, or not adopted at all.
Conceptual measurement framework for impacts of gender inequality on the wellbeing of children and adolescents
Background: By adulthood, gender inequalities in health and wellbeing are apparent. Yet, the timing and nature of gender inequalities during childhood and adolescence are less clear. We describe the emergence of gender inequalities in health and wellbeing across the first two decades of life. Methods: We focused on the 40 low-income and middle-income countries in Asia and the Pacific. A measurement framework was developed around four key domains of wellbeing across the first two decades: health, education and transition to employment, protection, and a safe environment.
Background: 3 billion people worldwide rely on polluting fuels and technologies for domestic cooking and heating. We estimate the global, regional, and national health burden associated with exposure to household air pollution. Methods: For the systematic review and meta-analysis, we systematically searched four databases for studies published from database inception to April 2, 2020, that evaluated the risk of adverse cardiorespiratory, paediatric, and maternal outcomes from exposure to household air pollution, compared with no exposure.
This study supports SDGs 3 and 6 by analysing data from 88 low-income and middle-income countries and showing geographical disparities in access to clean water and sanitation facilities. These findings identify where efforts to increase access to safe water and sanitation have been successful over time, and highlight the need for targeted and tailored interventions to reach those communities and regions that have been left behind.
Background: Hepatitis B causes more than 800 000 deaths globally each year. Perinatal infections are a major driver of this burden but can be prevented by vaccination within 24 h of birth. Currently, only 44% of newborn babies in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) receive a timely birth dose. We investigated the effects and cost-effectiveness of implementing ambient storage of hepatitis B vaccines under a controlled temperature chain (CTC) protocol and the use of compact prefilled auto-disable (CPAD) devices for community births.