Diabetic Retinopathy

Background: Many causes of vision impairment can be prevented or treated. With an ageing global population, the demands for eye health services are increasing. We estimated the prevalence and relative contribution of avoidable causes of blindness and vision impairment globally from 1990 to 2020. We aimed to compare the results with the World Health Assembly Global Action Plan (WHA GAP) target of a 25% global reduction from 2010 to 2019 in avoidable vision impairment, defined as cataract and undercorrected refractive error.
Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness in the working-age diabetic population in India and across the world. It may lead to permanent blindness if not detected in the early stages. The prevalence of DR among diabetics in India was 10% and 16.9% in 2014 and 2019, respectively. In 2019, the International Diabetes Federation estimated that Diabetic Mellitus will affect 101 million people in India in 2030; the largest number in any nation in the world.
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal ranibizumab in diabetic macular edema (DME) patients. Design: Two parallel, methodologically identical, phase III, multicenter, double-masked, sham injectioncontrolled, randomized studies. Participants: Adults with vision loss from DME (best-corrected visual acuity [BCVA], 20/4020/320 Snellen equivalent) and central subfield thickness ≥275 μm on time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). Intervention: Monthly intravitreal ranibizumab (0.5 or 0.3 mg) or sham injections. Macular laser was available per-protocolspecified criteria.