Discrimination

In 2011 ICAO published a report about projected pilot and training capacity shortage (ICAO, 2011). To solve this problem, several studies have been carried out, and forecasts of the required number of pilots for the next 10–20 years are constantly being updated. Universities have begun introducing pilot training into their aviation courses, although only US airlines require a degree from the candidates to work as a pilot.
Elsevier, American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Volume 77, June 2021
Kidney disease continues to manifest stark racial inequities in the United States, revealing the entrenchment of racism and bias within multiple facets of society, including in our institutions, practices, norms, and beliefs. In this perspective, we synthesize theory and evidence to describe why an understanding of race and racism is integral to kidney care, providing examples of how kidney health disparities manifest interpersonal and structural racism.
The crisis provoked by COVID-19 has rapidly and profoundly affected Latin America. The impacts are seen not only in infection and mortality rates, but also in the economic decline and increased inequality that plague the region, problems which have been exacerbated as a result of the pandemic.
Minorities and marginalized groups have increasingly become the target of discriminatory actions related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Detailed information about the manifestation of COVID-related discrimination is required to develop preventive actions that are not stigmatizing for such groups. The present study investigates experiences of perceived discrimination related to COVID-19 and its socio-cultural correlates in a culturally diverse sample of adults in Quebec (Canada). An online survey was completed by 3273 Quebec residents (49 % 18−39 years old; 57 % female; 49 % White).
With female names, voices and characters, artificially intelligent Virtual Personal Assistants such as Alexa, Cortana, and Siri appear to be decisively gendered female. Through an exploration of the various facets of gendering at play in the design of Siri, Alexa and Cortana, we argue that this gendering of VPAs as female may pose a societal harm, insofar as they reproduce normative assumptions about the role of women as submissive and secondary to men. In response, this article turns to examine the potential role and scope of data protection law as one possible solution to this problem.
This study analyzes the relationship between social inclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people and economic development. It uses legal and economic data for 132 countries from 1966 to 2011. Previous studies and reports provide substantial evidence that LGBT people are limited in their human rights in ways that also create economic harms, such as lost labor time, lost productivity, underinvestment in human capital, and the inefficient allocation of human resources.
The current paper addresses the nature of epistemic injustice as it may be experienced by persons with dementia. We describe how theoretical models of stigma align with the current model of epistemic injustice through a consideration of the concepts of ‘stereotype’ ‘prejudice’ and ‘discrimination’ shared by the two models. We draw on current understandings of dementia-related stigma to expand understandings of the epistemic injustice faced by persons with dementia.
The importance of stigma in shaping the experiences of people living with dementia and challenging their social citizenship emerges repeatedly as a powerful and negative force. In a recent participatory action research (PAR) study focused on understanding what people with dementia need to know to live well, this link between stigma, discrimination and social citizenship emerged once again. A group of people living with dementia (n = 8) met monthly for 16 months to discuss their experiences and advise on the curriculum of a proposed self-management program.
Elsevier, American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, Volume 26, March 2018
Stigma negatively affects individuals with cognitive impairment and dementia. This literature review examined the past decade (January 2004 to December 2015) of world-wide research on dementia-related stigma. Using standard systematic review methodology, original research reports were identified and assessed for inclusion based on defined criteria. Initial database searches yielded 516 articles.