Disease Model

Background & aims: Recent experimental models and epidemiological studies suggest that specific environmental contaminants (ECs) contribute to the initiation and pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the underlying mechanisms linking EC exposure with NAFLD remain poorly understood and there is no data on their impact on the human liver metabolome. Herein, we hypothesized that exposure to ECs, particularly perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS), impacts liver metabolism, specifically bile acid metabolism.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the foremost cause of dementia among other neurodegenerative diseases, leading to memory loss and cognitive deficits. AD has gained extensive attention in research for exploring possible interventions. One promising field is natural substances and compounds that could provide a wide range of neuroprotection against AD. This study aimed to investigate the possible effects of melatonin (MEL) and resveratrol (RES) in improving memory deficits in a sporadic mouse model of AD. Memory deficit was induced using AlCl3 and d-galactose for generating an AD mouse model.
Background: Microglia, the brain's principal immune cell, are increasingly implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the molecular interfaces through which these cells contribute to amyloid beta (Aβ)-related neurodegeneration are unclear. We recently identified microglial contributions to the homeostatic and disease-associated modulation of perineuronal nets (PNNs), extracellular matrix structures that enwrap and stabilize neuronal synapses, but whether PNNs are altered in AD remains controversial.
Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a peptide hormone of the incretin family. It has growth factor properties and can re-activate energy utilization. In progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, energy utilization is much reduced, and GIP has the potential to reverse this. Furthermore, GIP can reduce the inflammation response in the brain and reduce levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Tests in animal models of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease show good neuroprotective effects.
Perinatal depression (PND) is a heterogeneous disorder with differences in timing of onset of depression, which influences symptomology, severity, and treatment efficacy. Researchers must embrace the heterogeneity to bring fruition to a precision medicine approach for women in reproductive mental health care. Galea and Frokjaer discuss the heterogeneity of perinatal depression based on timing onset, which influences symptoms and has implications for etiology and treatment efficacy. The clinical and research community can exploit this heterogeneity to uncover precision treatment strategies.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a severe and disabling psychiatric disorder that presents several challenges for neuroscience. Recent advances in its genetic and developmental causation, as well as its neuropsychological basis, are reviewed. Hypotheses concerning an imbalance between goal-directed and habitual behavior together with neural correlates in cortico-striatal circuitry are evaluated and contrasted with metacognitive theories.
Altered synaptic structure and function is a major hallmark of fragile X syndrome (FXS), autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), and other intellectual disabilities (IDs), which are therefore classified as synaptopathies. FXS and ASDs, while clinically and genetically distinct, share significant comorbidity, suggesting that there may be a common molecular and/or cellular basis, presumably at the synapse.
Background The 69th World Health Assembly approved the Global Health Sector Strategy to eliminate hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection by 2030, which can become a reality with the recent launch of direct acting antiviral therapies. Reliable disease burden estimates are required for national strategies. This analysis estimates the global prevalence of viraemic HCV at the end of 2015, an update of—and expansion on—the 2014 analysis, which reported 80 million (95% CI 64–103) viraemic infections in 2013.