End-of-life Management

Although deployments of grid-scale stationary lithium ion battery energy storage systems are accelerating, the environmental impacts of this new infrastructure class are not well studied. To date, a small literature of environmental life cycle assessments (LCAs) and related studies has examined associated environmental impacts, but they rely on a variety of methods and system boundaries rather than a consistent approach.
Elsevier, Procedia Manufacturing, Volume 8, 2017
Sustainable manufacturing extends beyond the manufacturing process and the product, to include the supply chain, across multiple product life-cycles as well as end-of-life considerations. Companies can gain a competitive advantage by applying sustainability manufacturing for environmental friendlier products and operations. Industry 4.0 sets new requirements for becoming a sustainable manufacturer where data management, the Internet of Things and extended product service systems are tightly linked with traditional manufacturing processes.