Epigenetics

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Despite increased screening options and state-of-art treatments offered in clinics, racial differences remain in CRC. African Americans (AAs) are disproportionately affected by the disease; the incidence and mortality are higher in AAs than Caucasian Americans (CAs). At the time of diagnosis, AAs more often present with advanced stages and aggressive CRCs, primarily accounting for the racial differences in therapeutic outcomes and mortality.
We explore ethical premises and practical implications of using genetic testing to predict suicide risk. Twin studies indicate heritable components of suicide risk, intertwined with the heritability of mental disorders, and possibly other traits. Current genetics research has abandoned searching for single gene Mendelian determinants, in favour of complex probabilistic epigenetic models. Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) might identify thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), each contributing very little to the variance associated with behavioral phenotypes.
Elsevier, Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Volume 519, 1 January 2021
The ability to maintain a (relatively) stable body temperature in a wide range of thermal environments by use of endogenous heat production is a unique feature of endotherms such as birds. Endothermy is acquired and regulated via various endocrine and molecular pathways, and ultimately allows wide aerial, aquatic, and terrestrial distribution in variable environments. However, due to our changing climate, birds are faced with potential new challenges for thermoregulation, such as more frequent extreme weather events, lower predictability of climate, and increasing mean temperature.
Graphical abstract of article
Environmental risk factors, including physicochemical agents, noise and mental stress, have a considerable impact on human health. This environmental exposure may lead to epigenetic reprogramming, including changes in non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) signatures, which can contribute to the pathophysiology state. Oxidative stress is one of the results of this environmental disturbance by modifying cellular processes such as apoptosis, signal transduction cascades, and DNA repair mechanisms.
Here, Nestler and Lüscher link addiction circuits to epigenetic mechanisms that are engaged by drug exposure or reflect life experience. These molecular alterations may not only explain the basis of drug-evoked synaptic plasticity, but may also help understand individual addiction vulnerability.