Extreme Event

Droughts are extreme events that have major impacts on communities, ecosystems and economies due to slow onset and complex processes. Land and ecosystem degradation increase the risks of loss and damage during droughts, whereas well-adapted practices and policies can enable society to (re)build resilience. This review highlights actions needed to connect and fill gaps in the present systems for ecological and hydrological monitoring, governance, and alignment of economic incentives at regional, national and local scales.
The Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage has identified increasing temperatures as a key slow onset event. However, it is the resulting increases in short-term heat events — heatwaves — that have so far been the primary focus of risk assessment and policy, while gradual and sustained increases in temperature have received less attention. This is a global issue but particularly important in tropical and subtropical regions already chronically exposed to extreme heat.
Elsevier, Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Volume 122, June 2021
Since the 1980s, the industrialization and urbanization of the Beijing area has entered a period of high-speed growth. This paper asks the question: How have such great changes in urban land-use over the past decades impacted urban precipitation? In this study, we investigate and analyze the effects of urbanization on the summer precipitation in Beijing using numerical modeling approaches. Applying the numerical mesoscale atmospheric model METRAS, we determine the impact of surface cover on 13 heavy precipitation events.
Climate extremes are expected to become more commonplace and more severe, putting species and ecosystems at unprecedented risks. We recommend that rewilding programs can create conditions for ecosystems to endure and recover rapidly from climate extremes by incorporating ecosystem engineers of various body sizes and life forms.