Gender Bias

Introduction: Women continue to be underrepresented in oncology clinical trials, leading to poor, underpowered subgroup analyses that cannot be generalized to cancer patients in practice. In 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released an Action Plan, which included actions to improve the quality and reporting of demographic subgroup data. We sought to evaluate the five-year progress since the release of this report by assessing the credibility of sex-specific subgroup analyses in oncology clinical trials.
Objectives: We determined the representation of women in sport sciences research leadership by assessing the proportion of women in (i) leading authorship positions of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published from January 2000 to September 2020 in sport sciences journals and (ii) editorial boards of these journals as of September 2020. Design: Review.
Objectives: This study aimed to determine whether there are differences in the language used in grant applications submitted to a Southern Brazil Research Support Foundation (FAPERGS) according to the gender, career stage, and the number of publications of applicants. Study Design and Setting: This observational study also evaluated the relationship between gender, career stage, curriculum, and writing characteristics.
With regard to computer abuse, the term "malicious insider" tends to be associated with male employees, likely because men commit more crimes relative to women. We draw on the chivalry hypothesis to inform our study and explore whether managers demonstrate gender bias in decision-making regarding insider threats posed by subordinate employees. We recruited managers as participants in our study and randomly assigned them to an "employee gender" condition, wherein half the participants read a scenario with a female offender and half the participants read a scenario with a male offender.
Many factors have been proposed as potential causes for the underrepresentation of women in leadership positions. The present research leverages computational modeling and simulation to examine the impacts of external hiring and developmental opportunities, which may have consequences at different junctures in women's leadership labyrinth. Two agent-based simulations examined 1) the emergence of gender stratification in gender-balanced organizations and 2) the impact of reducing bias in external hiring and developmental opportunities in gender-stratified organizations.
Women's representation in science and medicine has slowly increased over the past few decades. However, this rise in numbers of women, or gender diversity, has not been matched by a rise in gender inclusion. Despite increasing representation, women still encounter bias and discrimination when compared with men in these fields across a variety of outcomes, including treatment at school and work, hiring, compensation, evaluation, and promotion.