Background & aims: Recent experimental models and epidemiological studies suggest that specific environmental contaminants (ECs) contribute to the initiation and pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the underlying mechanisms linking EC exposure with NAFLD remain poorly understood and there is no data on their impact on the human liver metabolome. Herein, we hypothesized that exposure to ECs, particularly perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS), impacts liver metabolism, specifically bile acid metabolism.
Background: Metabolic syndrome is characterised by a clustering of metabolic risk factors including abdominal obesity, raised triglycerides, lowered HDL cholesterol, hypertension and impaired glucose tolerance. Multifaceted lifestyle interventions including diet and exercise are recommended as the first-line treatment for the metabolic syndrome. Objective: To investigate the effects of lifestyle interventions that include both diet interventions and supervised exercise on outcomes for people with metabolic syndrome. Methods: A systematic review and meta-regression was conducted.
Objectives Gender identity disorder is defined as a strong and persistent cross-gender identification that is associated with a remarkable uneasiness of living in an incongruent gender (gender dysphoria). We performed a retrospective study on the hormonal and metabolic effects of cross-sex hormone therapy (CSHT) in a small cohort of transgender patients. Study design Retrospective study. Mean outcome measures Hormonal and biochemical parameters at baseline (i.e.
Background Studies have shown wide variation in the prevalence of lactose malabsorption across the world, but no systematic reviews or meta-analyses have recently assessed the prevalence of lactose malabsorption in different geographical areas. We aimed to present an updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence of lactose malabsorption in adults, by countries and regions, and to assess the variation between different testing methods.
Background Young people's health has emerged as a neglected yet pressing issue in global development. Changing patterns of young people's health have the potential to undermine future population health as well as global economic development unless timely and effective strategies are put into place. We report the past, present, and anticipated burden of disease in young people aged 10–24 years from 1990 to 2013 using data on mortality, disability, injuries, and health risk factors.