This book chapter addresses SDG 9 and 17 by explaining the evolution of the blue economy. From the moment it moved offshore, the oil and gas industry had a requirement for the skills of geotechnical engineers, geoscientists, meteorologists, and oceanographers to ensure that activities were conducted efficiently and safely, and a core element of the new blue economy was created. The migration into deeper water created new challenges, and the industry invests heavily in scientific studies, and research and development, to overcome them. In many cases, oil and gas companies form consortiums that support collaborative research conducted jointly by academic and industry scientists. As the level of engagement with the ocean observing community has grown, the industry has released much of its data into the public domain and supported the development of appropriate degrees and training to ensure that the new blue economy has a capable workforce. As the balance of energy moves away from hydrocarbons to renewable energy sources, and new industries emerge such as deep-sea mining, requiring the services of ocean scientists, the new blue economy created by the oil and gas industry will be well equipped to serve their needs.