Earth Day is widely recognised as the largest secular observance in the world, marked by more than a billion people every year as a day of action to change human behaviour and provoke policy changes. This day recognises and celebrates the Earth and its ecosystems as our home and highlights the need to protect earth to enhance people’s livelihoods, counteract climate change, and stop the collapse of biodiversity. To raise awareness of Earth Day 2021, Elsevier presents a curated list of free access journal articles and book chapters in support of this year's theme - Restore our Earth.
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The introduction of combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) for HIV-1 has significantly reduced peripherary viral levels and extended the lives of patients. However, longer lifespans have led to more age-related health issues, like HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). This study investigates how the HIV TAT protein mediates microglial mitochondrial oxidative stress, leading to neuroinflammation and microglial aging.
This study identifies the psychosocial factors of stigma and relationship to healthcare services among adolescents living with HIV/AIDS in Kano state, Nigeria.
In the β-thalassemias, oxidative stress, resulting from chronic hemolysis, globin chain imbalance, iron overload and depleted antioxidant defences, likely contributes to cell death, organ damage, anemia, hypoxia and inflammation. We assessed variations in these parameters in β-thalassemia syndromes in Sri Lanka.
Fanconi anemia (FA) has been investigated since early studies based on two definitions, namely defective DNA repair and proinflammatory condition. The former definition has built up the grounds for FA diagnosis as excess sensitivity of patients’ cells to xenobiotics as diepoxybutane and mitomycin C, resulting in typical chromosomal abnormalities. Another line of studies has related FA phenotype to a prooxidant state, as detected by both in vitro and ex vivo studies. The discovery that the FA group G (FANCG) protein is found in mitochondria (Mukhopadhyay et al., 2006) has been followed by an extensive line of studies providing evidence for multiple links between other FA gene products and mitochondrial dysfunction. The fact that FA proteins are encoded by nuclear, not mitochondrial DNA does not prevent these proteins to hamper mitochondrial function, as it is recognized that most mitochondrial proteins are of nuclear origin. This body of evidence supporting a central role of mitochondrial dysfunction, along with redox imbalance in FA, should lead to the re-definition of FA as a mitochondrial disease. 
To mark World Health Day 2021, RELX’s Global Head of Corporate Responsibility, Dr Márcia Balisciano, talks to Dr Richard McCallum and Dr Erika Claud about the need for a fairer and healthier world for all. 
This chapter aligns with the SDG goal 3 of good health and wellbeing by showing the role of the gut microbiota on liver function, disease, and inflammation.
April 7th of each year marks the celebration of World Health Day. From its inception at the First Health Assembly in 1948 and since taking effect in 1950, the celebration has aimed to create awareness of a specific health theme to highlight a priority area of concern for the World Health Organization. To raise awareness of this year's theme - building a fairer, healthier world for everyone - Elsevier presents a curated list of free access journal articles and book chapters.
This book chapter advances SDGs 3, 12 and 13 by discussing the entrance of microplastics in a range of environments, including oceans, surface waters, wastewaters, soils, sediments, the atmosphere, and food.
This book chapter advances SDGs 3, 12, and 13 by discussing carbonaceous aerosols that are one of the important components of the aerosol and play a significant role in changing climate, fluctuating air quality and health of the living being.