Hazard Assessment

There are increasing policy and market drivers for removing chemicals of concern from manufacturing processes and products. These drivers have centered primarily on developed countries. However, global activities through the United Nations, individual countries, and advocacy organizations are increasing concerns about chemical impacts in developing countries and economies in transition as well. While reducing the use of chemicals of concern is a primary goal, eliminating such substances without thoughtful consideration for their replacements can lead to regrettable substitutions.
Plastics entering the environment will persist and continue to degrade and fragment to smaller particles under the action of various environmental factors. These microplastics (MP) and nanoplastics (NP) are likely to pose a higher environmental impact, as well as they are more prone to adsorb organic contaminants and pathogens from the surrounding media, due to their higher surface area to volume ratio. Little known on their characteristics, fragmentation, distribution and impact on freshwater ecosystems.