Health Disparities

Background: In response to a national call for re-evaluation of the use of race in clinical algorithms, the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) and the American Society of Nephrology (ASN) established a Task Force to reassess inclusion of race in the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the United States and its implications for diagnosis and management of patients with, or at risk for, kidney diseases.
Elsevier, American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Volume 77, June 2021
Kidney disease continues to manifest stark racial inequities in the United States, revealing the entrenchment of racism and bias within multiple facets of society, including in our institutions, practices, norms, and beliefs. In this perspective, we synthesize theory and evidence to describe why an understanding of race and racism is integral to kidney care, providing examples of how kidney health disparities manifest interpersonal and structural racism.
Elsevier, Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, Volume , 2021
Objective: Health disparities are pervasive in nursing homes (NHs), but disparities in NH end-of-life (EOL) care (ie, hospital transfers, place of death, hospice use, palliative care, advance care planning) have not been comprehensively synthesized. We aim to identify differences in NH EOL care for racial/ethnic minority residents. Design: A systematic review guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020181792).
The New York Genome Center (NYGC) recently established Polyethnic-1000 (P-1000), a multi-institutional collaboration to study hereditary factors affecting several types of cancer.
Sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals face marked disparities in substance use. The present narrative review explores research on substance use in SGM communities using a minority stress theory lens. We define the SGM population and minority stress, and explore stresses and substance use disparities in adolescence, adulthood, and older age. Though research on this topic is beginning to highlight the relationship between stress and substance use for SGM individuals, more work is needed on older SGM populations and in translating research findings to effective interventions.
Mortality Rate Ratios for seniors age 65 and older (MRR65+) by New York City Community District (n=59). The MRR65+ compares mortality rates during very hot days (maximum heat index=100 °F+) to all May through September days, 1997–2006.
The health impacts of exposure to summertime heat are a significant problem in New York City (NYC) and for many cities and are expected to increase with a warming climate. Most studies on heat-related mortality have examined risk factors at the municipal or regional scale and may have missed the intra-urban variation of vulnerability that might inform prevention strategies.
A growing body of literature supports stigma and discrimination as fundamental causes of health disparities. Stigma and discrimination experienced by transgender people have been associated with increased risk for depression, suicide, and HIV. Transgender stigma and discrimination experienced in health care influence transgender people's health care access and utilization. Thus, understanding how stigma and discrimination manifest and function in health care encounters is critical to addressing health disparities for transgender people.