Healthcare Disparities

Purpose: Radiation therapy interruption (RTI) worsens cancer outcomes. Our purpose was to benchmark and map RTI across a region in the United States with known cancer outcome disparities. Methods and Materials: All radiation therapy (RT) treatments at our academic center were cataloged. Major RTI was defined as ≥5 unplanned RT appointment cancellations. Univariate and multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses identified associated factors. Major RTI was mapped by patient residence.
Metastatic colorectal cancer outcomes continue to improve, but they vary significantly by race and ethnicity. Hypothesizing that these disparities arise from unequal access to care rather than intrinsic biology, we showed that survival of 103 consecutive patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated at an academic safety-net hospital that treats the underserved, predominantly minority population of Harris County, Texas, was superior to that of subjects enrolled in the CRYSTAL (Cetuximab Combined with Irinotecan in First-Line Therapy for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer) trial.
Background: The relative importance of individual and country-level factors influencing access to diagnosis and treatment for depression across the world is fairly unknown. Methods: We analysed cross-national data from the WHO World Health Surveys. Depression diagnosis and access to health care were ascertained using a structured interview. Logistic Bayesian Multilevel analyses were performed to establish individual and country level factors associated with: (1) receiving a diagnosis and (2) accessing treatment for depression if a diagnosis was ascertained.
Conceived in 2003 and born in 2005 with the launch of its first report and country profiles, the Countdown to 2015 for Maternal, Newborn, and Child Survival has reached its originally proposed lifespan. Major reductions in the deaths of mothers and children have occurred since Countdown's inception, even though most of the 75 priority countries failed to achieve Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. The coverage of life-saving interventions tracked in Countdown increased steadily over time, but wide inequalities persist between and within countries.
Despite large gains in health over the past few decades, the distribution of health risks worldwide remains extremely and unacceptably uneven. Although the health sector has a crucial role in addressing health inequalities, its efforts often come into conflict with powerful global actors in pursuit of other interests such as protection of national security, safeguarding of sovereignty, or economic goals. This is the starting point of The Lancet-University of Oslo Commission on Global Governance for Health.
A growing body of literature supports stigma and discrimination as fundamental causes of health disparities. Stigma and discrimination experienced by transgender people have been associated with increased risk for depression, suicide, and HIV. Transgender stigma and discrimination experienced in health care influence transgender people's health care access and utilization. Thus, understanding how stigma and discrimination manifest and function in health care encounters is critical to addressing health disparities for transgender people.