Research suggests that racial/ethnic disparities in COVID-19 in the US are largely driven by higher rates of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 among Hispanic/Latino and Black populations. Occupational exposures play a large role in structuring risk of exposure, and essential workers are at elevated risk of COVID-19 infection. At a national-level, workers categorized as “essential” and “high-risk” are disproportionately Hispanic/Latino, but we lack analysis examining local-level racial/ethnic disparities in potential occupational exposures.
Data regarding racial and ethnic enrollment diversity for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) clinical trials in the United States are limited, and little is known about the effect of federal reporting requirements instituted in the late 2000s. We examined demographic data reporting and enrollment diversity for ALL and AML trials in the United States from 2002 to 2017, as well as changes in reporting and diversity after reporting requirements were instituted.
Background: Criteria for low-dose CT scan lung cancer screening vary across guidelines. Knowledge of the eligible pool across demographic groups can enable policy and programmatic decision-making, particularly for disproportionately affected populations. Research Question: What are the eligibility rates for low-dose CT scan screening according to sex and race or ethnicity and how do these rates relate to corresponding lung cancer incidence rates?
This Research paper supports SDGs 3 and 10 by providing national US estimates of the association between fatal police violence and pregnancy loss. Fatalities were measured within core-based statistical areas (census-defined urban areas). The findings showed that for each additional police-related fatality during the first 6 months of gestation there was a decrease in the total number of live births within the area. There was a decrease in births among Black women, but not among White women.
This paper supports SDG 3 and 10 by highlighting that stress, anxiety, depression, work overload, and burnout rates were higher among health-care workers of minority ethnic origin (Black and Latinx) in the USA during the COVID-19 pandemic than among their White counterparts. These findings demonstrate an urgent need to address these factors through structural reforms in order to better support overworked and undervalued health-care workers.
This Article supprts SDGs 3 and 10 by assessing the performance of four severity scoring systems used for case-mix determination and benchmarking in intensive care units to identify possible ethnicity-based bias. The study found systemic differences in calibration across ethnicities.
Background: The incidence of metastatic spine disease (MSD) is increasing among cancer patients. Given the poor outcomes and high rates of morbidity associated with MSD, it is important to determine demographic factors that could impact interventions and outcomes for this patient population. The objectives of this study were to compare in-hospital mortality and complication rates, clinical presentation, and interventions between female and male patients diagnosed with MSD.
Social determinants of health, including poverty, contribute significantly to health outcomes in the United States; however, their impact on pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes is poorly understood. We aimed to identify the association between neighborhood poverty and HCT outcomes for pediatric allogeneic HCT recipients in the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database.
Background: Patients from ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected by Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the relationship between ethnicity and clinical outcomes in COVID-19. Methods: Databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PROSPERO, Cochrane library and MedRxiv) were searched up to 31st August 2020, for studies reporting COVID-19 data disaggregated by ethnicity. Outcomes were: risk of infection; intensive therapy unit (ITU) admission and death. PROSPERO ID: 180654.
Metastatic colorectal cancer outcomes continue to improve, but they vary significantly by race and ethnicity. Hypothesizing that these disparities arise from unequal access to care rather than intrinsic biology, we showed that survival of 103 consecutive patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated at an academic safety-net hospital that treats the underserved, predominantly minority population of Harris County, Texas, was superior to that of subjects enrolled in the CRYSTAL (Cetuximab Combined with Irinotecan in First-Line Therapy for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer) trial.