Household Income

Background: The effect of long-term exposure to air pollution on the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is still controversial, and the role of the interactions of air pollution with genetic risk and lifestyle in COPD risk is unclear. Methods: We included 452762 participants derived from the UK Biobank. Annual concentrations of air pollutions, including particle matter (PM2.5, PM10), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), were assessed using land-use regression model.
This study uses the China Health and Nutrition Survey data to investigate the relationship between infrastructure construction and health inequality, particularly by exploring a quasi-natural experiment, namely, high-speed rail (HSR) projects. We find that HSR accessibility improves the health of local residents with a coefficient of 0.298, which means that HSR operation will lead to a 2.30% increase in health.
Background: The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health have been understudied among vulnerable populations, particularly in fragile and conflict-affected settings. We aimed to analyse how the pandemic is related to early changes in mental health and parenting stress among caregivers, many of whom are internally displaced persons (IDP), in a conflict-affected setting in Colombia. Methods: For this cohort study, we used longitudinal data from a psychosocial support programme in which 1376 caregivers were randomly assigned across four sequential cohorts.
Objective: Information about the adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on adolescent and adult mental health is growing, yet the impacts on preschool children are only emerging. Importantly, environmental factors that augment or protect from the multidimensional and stressful influences of the pandemic on emotional development of young children are poorly understood. Methods: Depressive symptoms in 169 preschool children (mean age 4.1 years) were assessed with the Preschool Feelings Checklist during a state-wide stay-at-home order in Southern California.
Background: The population of older adults (ie, those aged ≥55 years) in England is becoming increasingly ethnically diverse. Previous reports indicate that ethnic inequalities in health exist among older adults, but information is limited by the paucity of data from small minority ethnic groups. This study aimed to analyse inequalities in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and five determinants of health in older adults across all ethnic groups in England.
This Article supports SDGs 3 and 10 by evaluating ethnic inequalities in health among older adults (55 years or older) in England. The large, cross-sectional study includes more than a million survey respondents, and identifies wide ethnic inequalities in health-related quality of life, prevalence of long-term conditions, experiences of primary care, support from local services, and confidence in managing one's own health. Outcomes varied widely between minority ethnic groups, both in the direction and magnitude of associations.
Background: The incidence of metastatic spine disease (MSD) is increasing among cancer patients. Given the poor outcomes and high rates of morbidity associated with MSD, it is important to determine demographic factors that could impact interventions and outcomes for this patient population. The objectives of this study were to compare in-hospital mortality and complication rates, clinical presentation, and interventions between female and male patients diagnosed with MSD.
Background: Eradicating food insecurity is necessary for achieving global health goals. Liberal trade policies might increase food supplies but how these policies influence individual-level food insecurity remains uncertain. We aimed to assess the association between liberal trade policies and food insecurity at the individual level, and whether this association varies across country-income and household-income groups.
Purpose: Radiation therapy interruption (RTI) worsens cancer outcomes. Our purpose was to benchmark and map RTI across a region in the United States with known cancer outcome disparities. Methods and Materials: All radiation therapy (RT) treatments at our academic center were cataloged. Major RTI was defined as ≥5 unplanned RT appointment cancellations. Univariate and multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses identified associated factors. Major RTI was mapped by patient residence.
Poor air quality has extremely detrimental health consequences, including cancer, stroke, asthma or heart disease. Existing research on air pollution-induced environmental injustice (EI) in Hong Kong (HK) is based on sparse air pollution data due to the limited number of pollution monitoring stations, rendering the study of the relationship between air pollution exposure and social deprivation (SD), and the subsequent study of EI at finer geographical scales difficult.