Hygiene

Figure showing WASH-GEM themes.
A right to clean water is one of the global SDGs and is especially important for women.
The COVID-19 pandemic is unprecedented. The pandemic not only induced a public health crisis, but has led to severe economic, social, and educational crises. Across economies and societies, the distributional consequences of the pandemic have been uneven. Among groups living in vulnerable conditions, the pandemic substantially magnified the inequality gaps, with possible negative implications for these individuals' long-term physical, socioeconomic, and mental wellbeing.
This study supports SDGs 3 and 6 by showing that an integrated WASH (water, sanitation, and hygiene) intervention alone was not successful in preventing transmission of trachoma in rural Ethiopia. These findings conclude that, in areas with hyperendemic trachoma, WASH interventions need to be combined with mass distribution of antibiotics (azithromycin) in order to successfully eliminate trachoma.
Elsevier,

The Lancet Global Health, Volume 9, March 2021

This Viewpoint supports SDGs 3, 6, and 7 by discussing some of the reasons why many of the innovations and technologies for WASH (water, sanitation, and hygiene) and household air pollution developed in recent decades have not led to the expected improvements in health outcomes, and why many of these interventions have either been inconsistently adopted by low-income households, or not adopted at all.
Water and wastewater utilities, water and sanitation hygiene (WASH) practitioners, and regulating bodies, particularly in developing nations, rely heavily on indicator microorganisms, as opposed to pathogens, for much of their regulatory decisions. This commentary illustrates the importance of considering pathogens and not relying only on indicator organisms when making decisions regarding water and sanitation, especially with respect to meeting the current targets of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6.
Water–Sanitation–Hygiene (WASH) remains vital for the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, yet many countries have not localised the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including SDG 6, which focuses on ensuring the availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. Even in leading African economies such as South Africa, many communities still use the bucket system for sanitation.
This study supports SDGs 3 and 6 by showing that elementary WASH interventions alone were insufficient in reducing the prevalence of stunting, anaemia, and diarrhoea in children in rural Zimbabwe; these findings call for greater investment into, and scale-up of, WASH programmes in rural settings, in order to achieve more meaningful improvements in child health outcomes.
Training and capacity building are long established critical components of global water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) policies, strategies, and programs. Expanding capacity building support for WaSH in developing countries is one of the targets of the Sustainable Development Goals. There are many training evaluation methods and tools available. However, training evaluations in WaSH have been infrequent, have often not utilized these methods and tools, and have lacked rigor.