Figure showing the proportions of the global population under water stress per month in 2010
This Article supports SDGs 3 and 6 by assessing global human water stress for low to high environmental flow protection. The findings suggest that ensuring high ecological protection would put nearly half the world's population under water stress for at least 1 month per year, meaning important trade-offs are made when allocating limited water resources between direct human needs and the environment.
A considerable body of work highlights the relevance of collaborative research, contract research, consulting and informal relationships for university-industry knowledge transfer. We present a systematic review of research on academic scientists' involvement in these activities to which we refer as 'academic engagement'. Apart from extracting findings that are generalisable across studies, we ask how academic engagement differs from commercialisation, defined as intellectual property creation and academic entrepreneurship.