Elsevier, Preventive Medicine, Volume 155, February 2022
Contested racial identity— self-identified race not matching socially-assigned race—may be an indication of experiences with racism. We aimed to understand the relationship between contested racial identity and women's health behaviors, health outcomes, and infant health outcomes. We used 2012–2015 Massachusetts Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System data on 5735 women linked with infants' birth certificates.
Elsevier, The Lancet Global Health, Volume 10, January 2022
Water, sanitation, and hygiene for control of trachoma in Ethiopia (WUHA): a two-arm, parallel-group, cluster-randomised trial
Background: WHO promotes the SAFE strategy for the elimination of trachoma as a public health programme, which promotes surgery for trichiasis (ie, the S component), antibiotics to clear the ocular strains of chlamydia that cause trachoma (the A component), facial cleanliness to prevent transmission of secretions (the F component), and environmental improvements to provide water for washing and sanitation facilities (the E component). However, little evidence is available from randomised trials to support the efficacy of interventions targeting the F and E components of the strategy.
Background: Nearly 40% of the world's population is exposed daily to household air pollution. The relative impact of prenatal and postnatal household air pollution exposure on early childhood pneumonia, a leading cause of mortality, is unknown. Research Question: Are prenatal or postnatal household air pollution, or both, associated with pneumonia risk in the first year of life? Study Design and Methods: The Ghana Randomized Air Pollution and Health Study enrolled 1,414 nonsmoking, pregnant women before 24 weeks’ gestation with prospective follow-up to the child's age of 1 year.
Elsevier, The Lancet, Volume 398, 14 August 2021
Parental education and inequalities in child mortality: a global systematic review and meta-analysis
Background: The educational attainment of parents, particularly mothers, has been associated with lower levels of child mortality, yet there is no consensus on the magnitude of this relationship globally. We aimed to estimate the total reductions in under-5 mortality that are associated with increased maternal and paternal education, during distinct age intervals.
Vaccine, Volume 39, 23 August 2021
Hepatitis B (HB) vaccination plays a significant role in controlling HBV infection. Different immune mechanisms govern anti-HBs acquisition, titer, and maintenance. Host pre-vaccination immunological status could be targeted for vaccine efficacy.
Elsevier, The Lancet Planetary Health, Volume 5, May 2021
Effect of nutrition-sensitive agriculture interventions with participatory videos and women's group meetings on maternal and child nutritional outcomes in rural Odisha, India (UPAVAN trial): a four-arm, observer-blind, cluster-randomised controlled trial
Background: Almost a quarter of the world's undernourished people live in India. We tested the effects of three nutrition-sensitive agriculture (NSA) interventions on maternal and child nutrition in India. Methods: We did a parallel, four-arm, observer-blind, cluster-randomised trial in Keonjhar district, Odisha, India. A cluster was one or more villages with a combined minimum population of 800 residents.
Elsevier, Preventive Medicine Reports, Volume 21, March 2021
The current COVID-19 pandemic represents an acute threat to the health of adults and children across the globe. In addition, it has the potential to worsen the health of future generations through intergenerational health effects. Examples from history, including the Dutch famine (Hongerwinter), suggest that in utero and early life environments may have significant implications for health outcomes throughout the lifespan and are important in determining risk of chronic disease in adulthood.
Elsevier, The Lancet Child and Adolescent Health, Volume 5, February 2021
Hospital outcomes for children with severe sepsis in the USA by race or ethnicity and insurance status: a population-based, retrospective cohort study
Background: Disparities in outcomes of adult sepsis are well described by insurance status and race and ethnicity. There is a paucity of data looking at disparities in sepsis outcomes in children. We aimed to determine whether hospital outcomes in childhood severe sepsis were influenced by race or ethnicity and insurance status, a proxy for socioeconomic position. Methods: This population-based, retrospective cohort study used data from the 2016 database release from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID).
Elsevier, Blood, Volume 137, 28 January 2021
Neighborhood poverty and pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes: A CIBMTR analysis
Social determinants of health, including poverty, contribute significantly to health outcomes in the United States; however, their impact on pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes is poorly understood. We aimed to identify the association between neighborhood poverty and HCT outcomes for pediatric allogeneic HCT recipients in the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database.
Elsevier, The Lancet Global Health, Volume 8, December 2020
Gender inequalities in health and wellbeing across the first two decades of life: an analysis of 40 low-income and middle-income countries in the Asia-Pacific region
Background: By adulthood, gender inequalities in health and wellbeing are apparent. Yet, the timing and nature of gender inequalities during childhood and adolescence are less clear. We describe the emergence of gender inequalities in health and wellbeing across the first two decades of life. Methods: We focused on the 40 low-income and middle-income countries in Asia and the Pacific. A measurement framework was developed around four key domains of wellbeing across the first two decades: health, education and transition to employment, protection, and a safe environment.