Infant

Elsevier, Preventive Medicine, Volume 155, February 2022
Contested racial identity— self-identified race not matching socially-assigned race—may be an indication of experiences with racism. We aimed to understand the relationship between contested racial identity and women's health behaviors, health outcomes, and infant health outcomes. We used 2012–2015 Massachusetts Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System data on 5735 women linked with infants' birth certificates.
This study supports SDGs 3 and 6 by showing that an integrated WASH (water, sanitation, and hygiene) intervention alone was not successful in preventing transmission of trachoma in rural Ethiopia. These findings conclude that, in areas with hyperendemic trachoma, WASH interventions need to be combined with mass distribution of antibiotics (azithromycin) in order to successfully eliminate trachoma.
Background: Nearly 40% of the world's population is exposed daily to household air pollution. The relative impact of prenatal and postnatal household air pollution exposure on early childhood pneumonia, a leading cause of mortality, is unknown. Research Question: Are prenatal or postnatal household air pollution, or both, associated with pneumonia risk in the first year of life? Study Design and Methods: The Ghana Randomized Air Pollution and Health Study enrolled 1,414 nonsmoking, pregnant women before 24 weeks’ gestation with prospective follow-up to the child's age of 1 year.
Background: The educational attainment of parents, particularly mothers, has been associated with lower levels of child mortality, yet there is no consensus on the magnitude of this relationship globally. We aimed to estimate the total reductions in under-5 mortality that are associated with increased maternal and paternal education, during distinct age intervals.
Hepatitis B (HB) vaccination plays a significant role in controlling HBV infection. Different immune mechanisms govern anti-HBs acquisition, titer, and maintenance. Host pre-vaccination immunological status could be targeted for vaccine efficacy.
Background: Almost a quarter of the world's undernourished people live in India. We tested the effects of three nutrition-sensitive agriculture (NSA) interventions on maternal and child nutrition in India. Methods: We did a parallel, four-arm, observer-blind, cluster-randomised trial in Keonjhar district, Odisha, India. A cluster was one or more villages with a combined minimum population of 800 residents.
Elsevier, Preventive Medicine Reports, Volume 21, March 2021
The current COVID-19 pandemic represents an acute threat to the health of adults and children across the globe. In addition, it has the potential to worsen the health of future generations through intergenerational health effects. Examples from history, including the Dutch famine (Hongerwinter), suggest that in utero and early life environments may have significant implications for health outcomes throughout the lifespan and are important in determining risk of chronic disease in adulthood.
Background: Disparities in outcomes of adult sepsis are well described by insurance status and race and ethnicity. There is a paucity of data looking at disparities in sepsis outcomes in children. We aimed to determine whether hospital outcomes in childhood severe sepsis were influenced by race or ethnicity and insurance status, a proxy for socioeconomic position. Methods: This population-based, retrospective cohort study used data from the 2016 database release from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID).
Social determinants of health, including poverty, contribute significantly to health outcomes in the United States; however, their impact on pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) outcomes is poorly understood. We aimed to identify the association between neighborhood poverty and HCT outcomes for pediatric allogeneic HCT recipients in the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database.
Conceptual measurement framework for impacts of gender inequality on the wellbeing of children and adolescents
Background: By adulthood, gender inequalities in health and wellbeing are apparent. Yet, the timing and nature of gender inequalities during childhood and adolescence are less clear. We describe the emergence of gender inequalities in health and wellbeing across the first two decades of life. Methods: We focused on the 40 low-income and middle-income countries in Asia and the Pacific. A measurement framework was developed around four key domains of wellbeing across the first two decades: health, education and transition to employment, protection, and a safe environment.

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