Infrastructural Development

Elsevier, Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Volume 149, May 2021
In this paper, we address the problem of humanitarian aids distribution across refugee camps in war-ridden areas from a network design perspective. We show that the problem can be modeled as a variant of multi-period hub location problem with a particular demand pattern resulted by the user's behavior. The problem has been motivated by a case study of Lebanese experience in Syrian war refugee accommodation. We elaborate on the complexity and real-life constraints and, propose a compact formulation of a mathematical model of the problem.
Open defecation is a major global health problem. The number of open defecators in India dwarfs that of other states, and most live in rural places. Open defecation is often approached as a problem scaled at the site of the individual, who makes a choice not to build and/or use a toilet. Attempts to end rural open defecation by targeting individuals, like social marketing or behavior change approaches, often ignore the structural inequalities that shape rural residents’ everyday lives.
Recent research and professional interest in planning for sustainable and resilient cities emphasizes the assessment of a broad spectrum of urban ecosystem services. While such assessments are useful to establish specific benchmarks, and for measuring progress toward sustainability and resilience goals, they do not motivate, or support the innovations required to provide specific ecosystem services as an intentional part of routine urban and infrastructure development activity by municipalities and professionals.