Background: The pathological changes in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders begin decades prior to their clinical expression. However, the clinical diagnosis of neurodegenerative dementias is not straightforward. Lactoferrin is an iron-binding, antimicrobial glycoprotein with a plethora of functions, including acting as an important immune modulator and by having a bacteriocidic effect. Two previous studies indicated that salivary lactoferrin could differentiate between neurodegenerative dementias.
Background: Evidences of infectious pathogens in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains may suggest a deteriorated innate immune system in AD pathophysiology. We previously demonstrated reduced salivary lactoferrin (Lf) levels, one of the major antimicrobial proteins, in AD patients. Methods: To assess the clinical utility of salivary Lf for AD diagnosis, we examine the relationship between salivary Lf and cerebral amyloid-β (Aβ) load using amyloid-Positron-Emission Tomography (PET) neuroimaging, in two different cross-sectional cohorts including patients with different neurodegenerative disorders.