Landscape

Background: Road-traffic injuries are a key cause of death and disability in low-income and middle-income countries, but the effect of city characteristics on road-traffic mortality is unknown in these countries. The aim of this study was to determine associations between city-level built environment factors and road-traffic mortality in large Latin American cities. Methods: We selected cities from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, and Peru; cities included in the analysis had a population of at least 100 000 people.
Land-use intensification at the field and landscape scale is a strong driver for declining biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Vineyards are characterised by non-productive inter-rows, which could potentially host diverse plant communities. Mulching, tillage or herbicides are used to mitigate the competition between vines and the inter-row vegetation.
There are increasing policy and market drivers for removing chemicals of concern from manufacturing processes and products. These drivers have centered primarily on developed countries. However, global activities through the United Nations, individual countries, and advocacy organizations are increasing concerns about chemical impacts in developing countries and economies in transition as well. While reducing the use of chemicals of concern is a primary goal, eliminating such substances without thoughtful consideration for their replacements can lead to regrettable substitutions.
Elsevier, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Volume 38, June 2019
A growing movement of conservationists proposes to stem biodiversity losses by setting aside half of Earth's land as an interconnected global conservation reserve. As the largest land governance proposal in history, Half Earth engages with some of the wickedest challenges in land system science. How best to allocate and manage Earth's land to maximize biodiversity conservation in the face of competing demands for food, housing and other human needs? Can half of Earth's land be reallocated and governed fairly and equitably in ways that honor the rights of vulnerable populations?
The purpose of this Review is to provide evidence for why gender equality in science, medicine, and global health matters for health and health-related outcomes. We present a high-level synthesis of global gender data, summarise progress towards gender equality in science, medicine, and global health, review the evidence for why gender equality in these fields matters in terms of health and social outcomes, and reflect on strategies to promote change.
This article aims to contribute to current discussions about “making cities inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable” (SDG 11) by linking debates that are currently taking place in separate containers: debates on the “global land rush” and the “new urban agenda”. It highlights some important processes that are overlooked in these debates and advances a new, socially inclusive urbanization agenda that addresses emerging urban land grabs.
Background Information about the global structure of agriculture and nutrient production and its diversity is essential to improve present understanding of national food production patterns, agricultural livelihoods, and food chains, and their linkages to land use and their associated ecosystems services. Here we provide a plausible breakdown of global agricultural and nutrient production by farm size, and also study the associations between farm size, agricultural diversity, and nutrient production.
This paper extends the concept of therapeutic landscapes by investigating how green and blue spaces affect older adult health and wellbeing. We draw on interview data from participants aged 65-86 years old who described their everyday experiences with green and especially blue spaces across Metro Vancouver, Canada. Landscapes embedded with therapeutic qualities included parks, gardens, street greenery, lakes, and the ocean. Interactions with these spaces influenced participants' perceived physical, mental, and social health.