, eClinicalMedicine, Volume 46, April 2022
Background: In autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), clinical practice and treatment guidelines frequently diverge as a reflection of disease heterogeneity and challenges in achieving standardised care. We sought to explore the utility of multiparametric (mp) MR in patients with AIH, and the impact of this technology on physicians’ decision making and intended patient management. Methods: 82 AIH patients, recruited from two sites between June and November 2019 as part of an observational cohort study, underwent non-contrast MRI alongside their standard clinical investigations.
, Academic Radiology, Volume 29, March 2022
Rationale and Objectives: Our objectives were (1) to determine the extent to which gender discrimination and sexual harassment are experienced by female radiologists and trainees; (2) to examine whether experiencing harassment or discrimination influences perceptions of gender parity; and (3) to explore whether the existence of either formal institutional policies or the number of women in the workplace and/or in leadership positions influences perceptions of having achieved gender equity.
, Journal of Hepatology, Volume 76, March 2022
Background & Aims: Accumulating animal studies have demonstrated the harmful contribution of ambient air pollution (AP) to metabolic dysfunction-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD), but corresponding epidemiological evidence is limited. We examined the associations between long-term AP exposure and MAFLD prevalence in a Chinese population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 90,086 participants recruited in China from 2018 to 2019.
, The Lancet Planetary Health, Volume 6, February 2022
Background: Road-traffic injuries are a key cause of death and disability in low-income and middle-income countries, but the effect of city characteristics on road-traffic mortality is unknown in these countries. The aim of this study was to determine associations between city-level built environment factors and road-traffic mortality in large Latin American cities. Methods: We selected cities from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, and Peru; cities included in the analysis had a population of at least 100 000 people.
, Women and Birth, Volume 35, February 2022
Problem: Within maternity care policies and practice, pregnant migrant women are regarded as a vulnerable population. Background: Women's experiential knowledge is a key element of woman-centred care but is insufficiently addressed in midwifery practice and research that involves migrant women. Aim: To examine if pregnant migrant women's experiential knowledge of vulnerability corresponds with sets of criteria of vulnerability, and to explore how migrant women make sense of vulnerability during pregnancy.
, The Lancet, Volume 399, 12 February 2022
Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a major threat to human health around the world. Previous publications have estimated the effect of AMR on incidence, deaths, hospital length of stay, and health-care costs for specific pathogen–drug combinations in select locations. To our knowledge, this study presents the most comprehensive estimates of AMR burden to date. Methods: We estimated deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) attributable to and associated with bacterial AMR for 23 pathogens and 88 pathogen–drug combinations in 204 countries and territories in 2019.
, Journal of Hepatology, Volume 76, February 2022
Background & aims: Recent experimental models and epidemiological studies suggest that specific environmental contaminants (ECs) contribute to the initiation and pathology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the underlying mechanisms linking EC exposure with NAFLD remain poorly understood and there is no data on their impact on the human liver metabolome. Herein, we hypothesized that exposure to ECs, particularly perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS), impacts liver metabolism, specifically bile acid metabolism.
The Lancet Planetary Health, Volume 6, February 2022
This study supports SDGs 3 and 6 by investigating a low-cost behavioural intervention designed to increase latrine use and safe disposal of child faeces in India. The study found the intervention modestly increased latrine use and markedly increased safe disposal of child faeces in the short term, but was unlikely to reduce exposure to pathogens to a level necessary to achieve health gains.
, The Lancet Public Health, Volume 7, February 2022
Background: A considerable proportion of people who inject drugs are unstably housed. Although unstable housing is associated with HIV and HCV infection among people who inject drugs, its contribution to transmission is unknown. We estimated the global and national proportions of incident HIV and HCV infections among people who inject drugs attributed to housing instability from 2020 to 2029.
, The Lancet Global Health, Volume 10, February 2022
Background: China has the highest prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection worldwide. Universal HBV screening might enable China to reach the WHO 2030 target of 90% diagnostics, 80% treatment, and 65% HBV-related death reduction, and eventually elimination of viral hepatitis. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of implementing universal HBV screening in China and identified optimal screening strategies.