Major Clinical Study

Background & Aims: To date, evidence on the association between physical activity and risk of hepatobiliary cancers has been inconclusive. We examined this association in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (EPIC). Methods: We identified 275 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases, 93 intrahepatic bile duct cancers (IHBCs), and 164 non-gallbladder extrahepatic bile duct cancers (NGBCs) among 467,336 EPIC participants (median follow-up 14.9 years).
The Government of Ghana has instituted a National Poverty Reduction Program with an initiative known as the Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS) as its core health development strategy.
Study objective: We estimate emergency department (ED) use differences across Medicare enrollees of different race/ethnicity who are residing in the same zip codes. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, we stratified all Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries aged 66 years and older (2006 to 2012) by residence zip code and identified zip codes with racial/ethnic diversity, defined as containing at least 1 enrollee from each of 3 racial/ethnic groups: Hispanics, (non-Hispanic) blacks, and (non-Hispanic) whites.
The NeuroDev study will deeply phenotype cognition, behavior, dysmorphias, and neuromedical traits on an expected cohort of 5,600 Africans (1,800 child cases, 1,800 child controls, and 1,900 parents) and will collect whole blood for exome sequencing and biobanking.
Background: Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death for women in the United States and mortality from cancer is more common among individuals in the Appalachian region compared to the rest of the country. We examined how risk factors for long-term health outcomes for Estrogen positive breast cancer patients differed by county economic status in southern Appalachia. Methods: Data was collected through retrospective data mining of patient medical files (N = 238). Using the self-reported zipcode, patients were classified into county economic status.
Objective: Foreign-origin street children are vulnerable to HIV/AIDS mainly due to poverty, violence, early sexual activity and poor access to health care services. This study aimed to highlight the effectiveness of peer education intervention to reduce HIV-risky behavior among street children with Afghan nationality. Methods: Sixty-one street children were stratified by sex and then randomly allocated to either an intervention or control group by assigning each participant computerized random numbers.
Objective: Sedentary behaviour (SB) is harmful for health and well-being and may be associated with depression. However, little is known about the correlates of SB in people with depression. Thus, we investigated SB correlates among community-dwelling adults with depression in six low- and middle-income countries. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health were analyzed. The analysis was restricted to those with DSM-IV Depression or receiving depression treatment in the last 12 months.
Background: The relative importance of individual and country-level factors influencing access to diagnosis and treatment for depression across the world is fairly unknown. Methods: We analysed cross-national data from the WHO World Health Surveys. Depression diagnosis and access to health care were ascertained using a structured interview. Logistic Bayesian Multilevel analyses were performed to establish individual and country level factors associated with: (1) receiving a diagnosis and (2) accessing treatment for depression if a diagnosis was ascertained.
Elsevier, Drug and Alcohol Dependence, Volume 185, 1 April 2018
Background: Concurrent psychosocial problems may synergistically increase the risk of HIV infection (syndemics), representing a challenge for prevention. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of syndemics among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) enrolled in the Brazilian pre-exposure prophylaxis demonstration study (PrEP Brasil Study). Methods: Secondary cross-sectional analysis of the PrEP Brasil Study was performed.
Background & Aims Coffee has anti-inflammatory and hepato-protective properties. In the general population, drinking ≥3 cups of coffee/day has been associated with a 14% reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between coffee consumption and the risk of all-cause mortality in patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV).