Middle Income Country

Background: Understanding subnational variation in age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs) and total fertility rates (TFRs), and geographical clustering of high fertility and its determinants in low-income and middle-income countries, is increasingly needed for geographical targeting and prioritising of policy. We aimed to identify variation in fertility rates, to describe patterns of key selected fertility determinants in areas of high fertility.
Background: Increasing access to hepatitis C virus (HCV) care and treatment will require simplified service delivery models. We aimed to evaluate the effects of decentralisation and integration of testing, care, and treatment with harm-reduction and other services, and task-shifting to non-specialists on outcomes across the HCV care continuum.
Elsevier, Pediatric Clinics of North America, Volume 68, February 2021
The burden imposed by pollution falls more on those living in low-income and middle-income countries, affecting children more than adults. Most air pollution results from incomplete combustion and contains a mixture of particulate matter and gases. Air pollution exposure has negative impacts on respiratory health. This article concentrates on air pollution in 2 settings, the child's home and the ambient environment. There is an inextricable 2-way link between air pollution and climate change, and the effects of climate change on childhood respiratory health also are discussed.
Conceptual measurement framework for impacts of gender inequality on the wellbeing of children and adolescents
Background: By adulthood, gender inequalities in health and wellbeing are apparent. Yet, the timing and nature of gender inequalities during childhood and adolescence are less clear. We describe the emergence of gender inequalities in health and wellbeing across the first two decades of life. Methods: We focused on the 40 low-income and middle-income countries in Asia and the Pacific. A measurement framework was developed around four key domains of wellbeing across the first two decades: health, education and transition to employment, protection, and a safe environment.
International advocacy and evidence have been critical for shifting the pervasive issue of violence against women onto the health agenda. Guidelines and training packages, however, can be underpinned by Western principles of responding to individual survivors of violence and availability of specialist referral services, which may not be available in many countries.
This study supports SDGs 3 and 6 by analysing data from 88 low-income and middle-income countries and showing geographical disparities in access to clean water and sanitation facilities. These findings identify where efforts to increase access to safe water and sanitation have been successful over time, and highlight the need for targeted and tailored interventions to reach those communities and regions that have been left behind.
Background: Breast cancer has distinct causes, prognoses, and outcomes and effects in patients at premenopausal and postmenopausal ages. We sought to assess the global burden and trends in breast cancer by menopausal status. Methods: We did a population-based analysis of global breast cancer incidence and mortality among premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Menopausal status was defined using age as a proxy, whereby breast cancer cases or deaths at age 50 years or older were regarded as postmenopausal.
At the start of 2020, the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19), originating from China has spread to the world. There have been increasing numbers of confirmed cases and deaths around the globe. The COVID-19 pandemic has paved the way for considerable psychological and psychosocial morbidity among the general public and health care providers. An array of guidelines has been put forward by multiple agencies for combating mental health challenges. This paper addresses some of the mental health challenges faced by low and middle income countries (LMIC).
Few public health interventions can match the immense achievements of immunization in terms of mortality and morbidity reduction. However, progress in reaching global coverage goals and achieving universal immunization coverage have stalled; with key stakeholders concerned about the accuracy of reported coverage figures. Incomplete and incorrect data has made it challenging to obtain an accurate overview of immunization coverage, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). To date, only one literature review concerning immunization data quality exists.
This study supports SDG 3 and 10 by analysing data from 415 ethnic groups in 36 low-income and middle-income countries, and showing substantial ethnic disparities in under-5 mortality across the countries studied. These findings are crucial for monitoring trends and examining the impact of health interventions on child survival across different ethnic groups.