Multivariant Analysis

Concentrations of nine heavy metal (loid)s (HMs) were determined in fourteen different small indigenous species (SIS) of freshwater fish using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) technique. Mean concentrations of HMs in the investigated SIS of fish samples ranged from (0.284–1.554), (0.002–0.035), (0.055–0.431), (0.005–0.018), (0.011–0.252), (0.216–23.948), (0.460–34.616), (0.529–3.281), and (4.473–50.560) mg/kg-fw for Pb, Cd, Cr, As, Hg, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn, respectively. Statistically significant difference (p
Land Degradation (LD) in socio-environmental systems negatively impacts sustainable development paths. This study proposes a framework to LD evaluation based on indicators of diversification in the spatial distribution of sensitive land. We hypothesize that conditions for spatial heterogeneity in a composite index of land sensitivity are more frequently associated to areas prone to LD than spatial homogeneity. Spatial heterogeneity is supposed to be associated with degraded areas that act as hotspots for future degradation processes.