Nerve Degeneration

Elsevier, Behavioural Brain Research, Volume 414, 24 September 2021
Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK), a serine/threonine kinase regulated by the small GTPase RhoA, is involved in regulating cell migration, proliferation, and survival. Numerous studies have shown that the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway can promote Alzheimer's disease (AD) occurrence. ROCK activation increases β-secretase activity and promotes amyloid-beta (Aβ) production; moreover, Aβ further activates ROCK. This is suggestive of a possible positive feedback role for Aβ and ROCK. Moreover, ROCK activation promotes the formation of neurofibrillary tangles and abnormal synaptic contraction.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one the most common human afflictions, contributing to long-term disability in survivors. Emerging data indicate that functional improvement or deterioration can occur years after TBI. In this regard, TBI is recognized as risk factor for late-life neurodegenerative disorders. TBI encompasses a heterogeneous disease process in which diverse injury subtypes and multiple molecular mechanisms overlap.
Microglia are the predominant immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) that exert key physiological roles required for maintaining CNS homeostasis, notably in response to chronic stress, as well as mediating synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. The repeated exposure to stress confers a higher risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases including sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD).
Elsevier, Neurobiology of Stress, Volume 8, February 2018
Stress is critically involved in the development and progression of disease. From the stress of undergoing treatments to facing your own mortality, the physiological processes that stress drives have a serious detrimental effect on the ability to heal, cope and maintain a positive quality of life. This is becoming increasingly clear in the case of neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegenerative diseases involve the devastating loss of cognitive and motor function which is stressful in itself, but can also disrupt neural circuits that mediate stress responses.