Neuroscience

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. In this disease neurodegeneration occurs due to deposition of aggregated amyloid-beta plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (hyperphosphorylated tau proteins). Present study focuses on interaction of different phytochemicals with presenilin stabilization factor like protein (PSFL). PSFL protein is known to stabilize Presenilin, which is mainly involved in intramembrane hydrolysis of selected type- I membrane proteins, including amyloid-beta precursor protein, and produces amyloid-beta protein.
Enhancing the Diversity of Neuroscience Researchers.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive decline in cognitive function. Intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (icv-STZ) has been used as an experimental model of Sporadic AD (SAD) in rodents and represents a promising tool for etiopathogenic analysis and evaluation of new therapeutic proposals for AD. The icv-STZ model shows many aspects of SAD abnormalities, resulting in decreased brain glucose and energy metabolism, cognitive impairment, oxidative stress, neuronal loss, and amyloid angiopathy.
Polymorphism in the microglial receptor CD33 gene has been linked to late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD), and reduced expression of the CD33 sialic acid-binding domain confers protection. Thus, CD33 inhibition might be an effective therapy against disease progression. Progress toward discovery of selective CD33 inhibitors has been hampered by the absence of an atomic resolution structure.
Microglia play a key role in innate immunity in Alzheimer disease (AD), but their role as antigen-presenting cells is as yet unclear. Here we found that amyloid β peptide (Aβ)-specific T helper 1 (Aβ-Th1 cells) T cells polarized to secrete interferon-γ and intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected to the 5XFAD mouse model of AD induced the differentiation of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII)+ microglia with distinct morphology and enhanced plaque clearance capacity than MHCII− microglia.
Healthy psychological and brain development is not a privilege, but a fundamental right that requires special protections and opportunities for building cognitive, emotional, and social skills necessary for becoming a contributing member of our society. Healthy psychological and brain development is not a privilege, but a fundamental right that requires special protections and opportunities for building cognitive, emotional, and social skills necessary for becoming a contributing member of our society.
There have been several recent studies addressing the genetic architecture of depression. This review serves to take stock of what is known now about the genetics of depression, how it has increased our knowledge and understanding of its mechanisms, and how the information and knowledge can be leveraged to improve the care of people affected.
Although the brain accounts for only 2% of the total body mass, it consumes the most energy. Neuronal metabolism is tightly controlled, but it remains poorly understood how neurons meet their energy demands to sustain synaptic transmission. Here we provide evidence that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)is pivotal to sustain neuronal energy levels upon synaptic activation by adapting the rate of glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. Furthermore, this metabolic plasticity is required for the expression of immediate-early genes, synaptic plasticity, and memory formation.