Elsevier, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 149, October 2020
Fire is an ecological disturbance that alters soil microbiomes and the functions they mediate in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil microbial diversity in Mediterranean Basin ecosystems shows resilience to fire following the restoration of plant-soil feedbacks. We hypothesised that microbial functions related to organic matter decomposition and nutrient cycling might show similar patterns of recovery.
Humans, through agricultural fertilizer application, inject more reactive nitrogen (Nr) to terrestrial ecosystems than do natural sources. Ammonia volatilization is a major pathway of agricultural Nr loss. Using a process-based dynamic model, Shen et al. show that ammonia volatilization from agricultural land in the US will increase by up to 81% by the end of this century due to climate change alone, posing threats to food security, air quality, and ecosystem health, but mitigation strategies are available.
The artificial drainage of heavy textured gley soils is prevalent on pasture. Drainage of a soil profile reduces the water filled pore space (WFPS) in the upper soil horizons with consequences for N2 and N2O emissions, the fate of nitrogen (N), transformational processes and microbial and bacterial communities. The present intact soil column study with isotopically enriched fertiliser investigates all these aspects simultaneously under two WFPS treatments (80% (HS) and 55% (LS) saturation).
Elsevier, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Volume 143, April 2020
Improving rice yield potential is crucial for global food security. Taoyuan, China, is famous worldwide as a special ecosite for ultrahigh rice yield. Climatological factors affecting this phenomenon have been identified, but the potential molecular processes and environmental mechanisms promoting ultrahigh yield remain mysteries.
Graphical abstract of article
Traffic emission is responsible for most small-sized particulate matter (PM) air pollution in urban areas. Several recent studies have indicated that traffic-related PM may aggravate kidney disease. Furthermore, exposure to particulate air pollution may be related to the risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been adequately addressed. In the present study, we studied the mechanisms of renal damage that might be associated with exposure to PM.
Although the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilization on soil microflora have been well studied, the effects should be verified across soil types and N-added levels. To understand the impacts of N fertilization on shifts in soil biological traits and bacterial communities and to further explore the coupling mediation of these parameters with respect to crop yields, we sampled soils from three experimental sites (each site received three levels of N fertilization (0, 168 and 312 kg N ha−1)) that share the same climatic conditions but have different soil types (clay, alluvial and sandy soils).
Elsevier, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Volume 34, October 2018
Actions on climate change (SDG 13), including in the food system, are crucial. SDG 13 needs to align with the Paris Agreement, given that UNFCCC negotiations set the framework for climate change actions. Food system actions can have synergies and trade-offs, as illustrated by the case for nitrogen fertiliser. SDG 13 actions that reduce emissions can have positive impacts on other SDGs (e.g. 3, 6, 12, 14, 15); but such actions should not undermine the adaptation goals of SDG 13 and SDGs 1, 2, 5 and 10.
When biochar (BC) ages in soil, its properties change substantially: cation exchange capacity (CEC), surface area and porosity increase and water repellency decreases, consequently affecting the interactions with soil microorganisms. Activation of BC by organic acids may be regarded as artificial aging. Here, we study the effect of acid-activated BCs on soil microbial enzyme activities (EA) in comparison to several different control treatments without activated BC. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted using a vineyard soil treated with multiple soil additives (four replications).
Elsevier, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Volume 133, June 2018
Sustainable use and management of nutrients is an important issue for food, energy and water systems. The close connections between the three systems, reflected by the “nexus” concept, warrant an integrated approach to nutrients management across the nexus. In this paper, dynamic modelling of nutrient flows in a local food-energy-water system is presented and applied to a simplified case study.