Outcome Assessment

Elsevier, Preventive Medicine, Volume 155, February 2022
Contested racial identity— self-identified race not matching socially-assigned race—may be an indication of experiences with racism. We aimed to understand the relationship between contested racial identity and women's health behaviors, health outcomes, and infant health outcomes. We used 2012–2015 Massachusetts Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System data on 5735 women linked with infants' birth certificates.
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is the leading cause of women's homelessness. However, what works best to respond to the needs of women experiencing IPV and homelessness remains unclear. We aimed to systematically review the effects of housing interventions on the physical, psychosocial, and economic wellbeing of women experiencing IPV. Methods: In this systematic review, we searched 15 electronic databases and conducted an extensive grey literature and hand reference search between Jan 29, 2020, and May 31, 2021.
This study supports SDGs 3 and 6 by showing that a handwashing intervention involving disgust-inducing messages, combined with the provision of handwashing stations in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, successfully increased rates of handwashing with soap after toilet use. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of combining health-based messaging with non-health-based messaging when implementing water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions.
Background: The impact of COVID-19 on physical and mental health and employment after hospitalisation with acute disease is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of COVID-19-related hospitalisation on health and employment, to identify factors associated with recovery, and to describe recovery phenotypes.
This study supports SDG 3 and 10 by highlighting an overrepresentation of Black children and adolescents in involuntary psychiatric hospitalisations, which may establish potentially lifelong negative mental health treatment trajectories and contribute to cycles of health inequality that persist in later life.
Background: Stunting rates in children younger than 5 years are among the most important health indicators globally. At the national level, malnutrition accounts for about 40% of under-5 deaths in Ghana. Disease risk mapping provides opportunities for disease surveillance and targeted interventions. We aimed to estimate and map under-5 stunting prevalence in Ghana, with the goal of identifying communities at higher risk where interventions and further research can be targeted. Methods: For this modelling study, we used data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey.
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected mental health, psychological wellbeing, and social interactions. People with physical disabilities might be particularly likely to be negatively affected, but evidence is scarce. Our aim was to evaluate the emotional and social experience of older people with physical disabilities during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic in England.
Background: Almost a quarter of the world's undernourished people live in India. We tested the effects of three nutrition-sensitive agriculture (NSA) interventions on maternal and child nutrition in India. Methods: We did a parallel, four-arm, observer-blind, cluster-randomised trial in Keonjhar district, Odisha, India. A cluster was one or more villages with a combined minimum population of 800 residents.
Background: The number of individuals with vision impairment worldwide is increasing because of an ageing population. We aimed to systematically identify studies describing the association between vision impairment and mortality, and to assess the association between vision impairment and all-cause mortality. Methods: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase, and Global Health database on Feb 1, 2020, for studies published in English between database inception and Feb 1, 2020.
This Research paper supports SDGs 3 and 10 by assessing ethnic differences in SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among hospital workers. The findings showed that Black people had more than double the likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity compared with White people, independent of age, sex, socioeconomic factors, and hospital role.