Oxidative Stress

Elsevier, Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators, Volume 156, October 2021
Millions of people are affected by neurodegenerative diseases worldwide. They occur due to the loss of brain functions or peripheral nervous system dysfunction. If untreated, prolonged condition ultimately leads to death. Mostly they are associated with stress, altered cholesterol metabolism, inflammation and organelle dysfunction. Endogenous cholesterol and phospholipids in brain undergo auto-oxidation by enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic modes leading to the formation of by-products such as 4-hydroxynonenal and oxysterols.
Sporadic late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent cause of dementia associated with aging. Due to the progressive aging of the population, AD is becoming a healthcare burden of unprecedented proportions. Twenty years ago, it was reported that some indole molecules produced by the gut microbiota possess essential biological activities, including neuroprotection and antioxidant properties. Since then, research has cemented additional characteristics of these substances, including anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, and amyloid anti-aggregation features.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is by far the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease of aging and is a major burden for patients, caregivers, and the overall health care system. The complexity of AD pathophysiology and the lack of deep understanding of disease mechanisms impeded the development of AD therapy. Currently approved treatments for AD only modestly improve cognitive function but do not modify disease course. The lack of pharmacological approaches has led to the consideration of alternative strategies to prevent or to slow down the progression of AD.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the commonest neurodegenerative disorder with a wide array of manifestations, courses, and contributing causes. Despite being clinically characterized a long time ago; no treatment has been developed that could improve the pathology or slow down the disease manifestation- so far. Indian Catechu methanolic extract (ICME) has proved to have multiple beneficial effects that support its use in several disorders- especially those with complex etiology.
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Environmental pollutants like fine particulate matter can cause adverse health effects through oxidative stress and inflammation. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) such as peroxynitrite can chemically modify proteins, but the effects of such modifications on the immune system and human health are not well understood. In the course of inflammatory processes, the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) can sense damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs).
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Environmental risk factors, including physicochemical agents, noise and mental stress, have a considerable impact on human health. This environmental exposure may lead to epigenetic reprogramming, including changes in non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) signatures, which can contribute to the pathophysiology state. Oxidative stress is one of the results of this environmental disturbance by modifying cellular processes such as apoptosis, signal transduction cascades, and DNA repair mechanisms.
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Microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) have attracted considerable attention in the recent years as potential threats to the ecosystem and public health. This review summarizes current knowledge of pathological events triggered by micro- and nano-plastics (MP/NPs) with focus on oxidative damages at different levels of biological complexity (molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, individual and population).
Objectives: The mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD) may involve oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is a circulating protein that intersects both these pathways, since its expression is increased during the acute phase response, and the protein acts to lower pro-oxidant iron in cells. Since the role of Cp in AD, and its potential for use as a biomarker is not established, we investigated CSF Cp and its association with longitudinal outcome measures related to AD.
Elsevier, Free Radical Biology and Medicine, Volume 151, 1 May 2020
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Cardiovascular causes have been estimated to be responsible for more than two thirds of the considerable mortality attributed to air pollution. There is now a substantial body of research demonstrating that exposure to air pollution has many detrimental effects throughout the cardiovascular system. Multiple biological mechanisms are responsible, however, oxidative stress is a prominent observation at many levels of the cardiovascular impairment induced by pollutant exposure.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive decline in cognitive function. Intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (icv-STZ) has been used as an experimental model of Sporadic AD (SAD) in rodents and represents a promising tool for etiopathogenic analysis and evaluation of new therapeutic proposals for AD. The icv-STZ model shows many aspects of SAD abnormalities, resulting in decreased brain glucose and energy metabolism, cognitive impairment, oxidative stress, neuronal loss, and amyloid angiopathy.