Pathways towards a defossilated sustainable power system for West Africa within the time horizon of 2015–2050 is researched, by applying linear optimisation modelling to determine the cost optimal generation mix to meet the demand based on assumed costs and technologies in 5-year intervals. Six scenarios were developed, which aimed at examining the impact of various policy constraints such as cross-border electricity trade and greenhouse gas emissions costs.
Metal halide perovskite materials have revolutionized the solution-processed solar cells and become the vanguard of research focus with an unprecedented improvement of power conversion efficiencies up to 23.3%, which pose a remarkable challenge to thin film and multicrystalline silicon photovoltaics. Nevertheless, for conventional perovskite solar cells based on lead, it is ineluctable to take the toxicity of lead and the long-term stability of the devices into consideration when the deployment of this technology in mass production is put on the agenda.