Physicochemical Property

Amahewu is a fermented maize-based gruel or beverage consumed mainly in Southern Africa. The nutritional and sensory properties of amahewu may vary with inoculum type, maize type and the prevailing fermentation conditions. Further, these properties may be enhanced through enrichment and fortification. This review seeks to provide up-to-date information on the science and technology of amahewu, focussing on the research findings of its physicochemical properties, as affected by the starter culture used, product formulation and processing conditions.
Elsevier, Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Volume 50, June 2021
The processes of salinisation and alkalinisation of soil that caused the formation of different types of saline (halomorphic) soils are characteristic of the northern part of Serbia — the area of Vojvodina. These soils are characterized by poor physical and chemical properties due to a high content of salt and/or adsorbed Na+ ions because of which are being used to a limited extent in agricultural production, and more as pastures.
In limestone quarries, after quarry abandonment, ecological restoration takes place subsequently over several years, often with the use of different procedures and backfilling materials. The success of the different restoration actions performed at a limestone quarry (Colle Pedrino, Lombardy Prealps, Italy) in terms of vegetation cover and biodiversity levels, compared to the surrounding natural areas, was evaluated in this work.
The diversification of tropical pastures with legumes (trees) for increased forage and animal productivity has been advocated. Nevertheless, effects on soil quality and belowground biodiversity, and the implications for sustainable intensification remain poorly documented, particularly when cattle grazing is included in the study. We evaluated the impact of forage system diversification with herbaceous and woody legumes on soil properties and soil macrofauna communities and their spatial heterogeneity in a three-year-old field trial in Cauca Valley, Colombia.
Although the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilization on soil microflora have been well studied, the effects should be verified across soil types and N-added levels. To understand the impacts of N fertilization on shifts in soil biological traits and bacterial communities and to further explore the coupling mediation of these parameters with respect to crop yields, we sampled soils from three experimental sites (each site received three levels of N fertilization (0, 168 and 312 kg N ha−1)) that share the same climatic conditions but have different soil types (clay, alluvial and sandy soils).
Membrane (bio)fouling is a major obstacle to many separation and purification processes. Due to the inherent physicochemical properties of some thin film composite membrane surfaces such as polyamide, these are prone to (bio)fouling. Hence, this review highlights recent advances in the design and development of highly resistant thin film composite membrane through surface modification by either coating or grafting with antifouling polymers and/or antimicrobial polymers/biocidal inorganic nanoparticles.