Background: Nearly 40% of the world's population is exposed daily to household air pollution. The relative impact of prenatal and postnatal household air pollution exposure on early childhood pneumonia, a leading cause of mortality, is unknown. Research Question: Are prenatal or postnatal household air pollution, or both, associated with pneumonia risk in the first year of life? Study Design and Methods: The Ghana Randomized Air Pollution and Health Study enrolled 1,414 nonsmoking, pregnant women before 24 weeks’ gestation with prospective follow-up to the child's age of 1 year.
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Oxidation of engineered nanomaterials during application in various industrial sectors can alter their toxicity. Oxidized nanomaterials also have widespread industrial and biomedical applications. In this study, we evaluated the cardiopulmonary hazard posed by these nanomaterials using oxidized carbon black (CB) nanoparticles (CBox) as a model particle. Particle surface chemistry was characterized by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has pushed the medical system to its breaking point. While the virus does not discriminate, the elderly and those with comorbidities, including hypertension severe obesity, diabetes mellitus, coronary disease, pneumonia and dementia, are at a greater risk for adverse outcomes due to COVID-19. While many people navigate their new normal, the question of what the long-lasting effects of the pandemic may be, lingers.
Background: The incidence of metastatic spine disease (MSD) is increasing among cancer patients. Given the poor outcomes and high rates of morbidity associated with MSD, it is important to determine demographic factors that could impact interventions and outcomes for this patient population. The objectives of this study were to compare in-hospital mortality and complication rates, clinical presentation, and interventions between female and male patients diagnosed with MSD.
Background China has achieved Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce under-5 mortality rate by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. In this study, we estimated the national and subnational levels and causes of child mortality in China annually from 1996 to 2015 to draw implications for achievement of the SDGs for China and other low-income and middle-income countries.
A new Global Investment Framework for Women's and Children's Health demonstrates how investment in women's and children's health will secure high health, social, and economic returns. We costed health systems strengthening and six investment packages for: maternal and newborn health, child health, immunisation, family planning, HIV/AIDS, and malaria. Nutrition is a cross-cutting theme. We then used simulation modelling to estimate the health and socioeconomic returns of these investments.